Most organization ignore this drive that motivation is the success factor that we send employees thinking more of organization interest and less of individual interest. Countries like Japan, America, Russia, China, Europe are known for their technological advancement. The secret behind the success of these developed countries is that they have developed a culture of motivating their labour force. It is worthy to mention that a motivated worker is the most productive workers. The worker who sometimes equals or excel in any standard his boss sets or contemplates setting for him. Herzberge defined motivation in a book jointly written by Williams F. Dawling and Leonard R. Sayle titled “How motivates” (1971) as: “An inner desire to make an effort.
This definition implies that there is a reagent that acts as a catalyst that gears or gingers up the effort that make an employee go the extra mile to achieve what he/she would ordinarily not achieve under normal circumstances, the term “motivation” derives from the Latin movere “to move” it is virtually impossible to determine a person’s motivation until that person behaves or literally move. Robert Kreitner in the fifth edition of his book titled “management” (1990) defined motivation as “the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction.
By applying this process, managers attempt to get individuals to willingly pursue organizational objectives. The individual workers behave in a certain manner or toward a certain direction informed by a drive within them and this give them the urge to aspire to satisfy that objective.
The resultant effect of motivation is the attainment of higher productivity by organization (both private and public)
In essence motivation is a function of performance, which eventually leads to sustain the success of organization. A working definition (Cole 1995) of motivation is as follows: “Motivation is the term used to describe those process, both instructive and rations by which people seek to satisfy the basic drives, perceived needs and personal goals which trigger human behaviour”.
It becomes pertinent for all organization to know that motivation is a success factor in order to achieve higher performance.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The aims and objectives of every organization is to be successful, and for an organization to be successful, its employees must b properly informed of what is expected of them, how to go about achieving the result; creating enabling environment for them to operate, availability of facilities and material guaranteed job security adequate compensation for hardworking workers, it is globally accepted that motivation plays a fundamental role in enhancing workers performance behaviours. Motivation comes in different forms, since human beings are unpredictable and their needs insatiable, because what could serve as motivation to one worker may not necessary server as motivation to the other. However, the following factors could serve as motivation factors, as theorized by Abraham Maslow.
1. Job security
2. Job satisfaction
3. Self esteem
4. Self actualization
5. Spirit of belonging (needs)
6. Rewards for exceptional performance
Below is a diagrammatic representation of these motivation factors.
High needs emerge as lower needs are fulfilled.
Data from diagram from A. H. Maslow.
Since motivation comes in divert forms, every organization (private or public) has its pattern of motivating its employees to stimulate their moral toward achieving a successful performance.
However, since motivation has been unverically accepted as an inducement to employee to strive to achieve extra ordinary or unique level of performance which they could not ordinarily achieve this worker will endeavour to unearth or unravel those motivational tools available for employers to labour in order to aid them in boosting their organizational performance. In view of the security and exorbitant cost of accommodation in the cosmopolitan cities like Lagos, most employees would feel highly motivated if provided with accommodation at a reasonable cost. A case in point is the centre for management development which has provided accommodation for its staff on essential services and affordable cost with the organization’s premises. There is no doubt that some of them may have gotten offers from somewhere else than what they are receiving from the centre, but for the conducive accommodation they enjoy from the centre, they would prefer the meager salary to receiving the fat one elsewhere and pay so much on rent inside the city, this is a pure case of lean liberty being better than fat salary.
Some organizations choose to motivate their employees by either providing them with housing loans, vehicle or official vehicles. In the late 70s and early 80s some notable companies (mostly in the oil industries) adopted this mode of motivation, by providing most of their senior workers with car loans. In the 60s and 70s all graduates from the universities had ready jobs, car loans and accommodation waiting for them. This form of inducement does not only encourage workers to be dedicated to an organization, but also ensures employees punctuality to work, hence facilitating higher productivity in the organization. Provision of free medical facilities has been discovered to have played a functional role in having some employees fee motivated when their employer consider their health their prime concern. A healthy organization is a productive organization. Monetary motivation of course play a greater role in motivating employees to give out their best. This could come in the form of promotion, transfer, job enlargement; job enrichment, benefits and training involving outside station. With the advent of the present economic downturn, any form of monetary motivation will be very much appreciated by a large number of employees and this will enhance the success of the organization. The reality of monetary motivation cannot be overemphasized as labour union have consistently being at logger-head with the Federal Government over civil servant poor conditions of service, hence the inevitable need for appropriate upward review of wages and salary labour union have always felt unhappy that civil servants in a country of abundance financial resources are not commensurately compensated. This has informed the persistent demand for salary reviews in order not only to caution the economic effect, but to adequately compensate them (employee), which in return will make them to improve their work performance, some organization like Centre for Management Development (CMD) for instance, has a culture of motivating its workers by way of distributing rice, chicken and turkeys to staff at the end of every year in addition to organizing end of year party for the staff children where they are presented with some token souvenirs, the centre also gives long service awards for its workers, where some of them take home gift items such as television sets, sets of cooking utensils; depending on the length of services. These incentives serve as motivational tonic and the trigger employees, and serves as a success factor in the organization by improve performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In most organization, with particular reference to the public sector, you find out that workers hardly report to their duty posts as and when due, inspite of Management’s threat; and when one inquires further why they exhibit such laxity or lack a disical attitude to their duties; they will simply tell you that the work is not their “father’s work” and if they drop dead today, someone else would do the work most of the workers in both sectors of the economy are involved in one form of trading or the other within and outside the organization which neglects some sections of the civil service regulation. A visit to some public organization during working hours will reveal a clear case of either truancy or absenteeism as most workers only report to sign attendance register after which they go out to pursue their personal businesses, thereby having divided loyalty with their official function.