1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Integrated science now known as basic Science may be viewed as an embodiment of the core sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics and so on. It is one in which concepts of principles are presented so as to express the fundamental unity of scientific thought avoid premature or undue stress and distinction between the various scientific fluids.
The study of basic science is very vital in man’s understanding of his universe. For a complete clear and satisfying understanding of his universe, there is need for man to see or view science as a piece. The desire to view his universe as a piece partly explains man interest in the study of science in an integrated rather than disjointed manner, hence to study of integrated science.
A good basic science course enables students gain the concept of the fundamental unity of science such a course should also aid students’ understanding of the role and function of science in everyday life, and he world in which they live. A basic science course eliminates the repetition of subject matter from the various science and does not recognize the traditional subject boundaries when presenting topics on themes. In the words of J.D. Arbon (1992) in Cohen (1977).
According to Aniodoh (2008) a good basic science course should among others:
1. Serve a general education function
2. Ensure that the course is meaningful and relevant to the pupils’ needs and experiences
3. Add a cultural dimension to science education
4. Provide adequate basic knowledge for subsequent specialist study, for example in the areas of chemistry, biology, physics, medicine, pharmacy, engineering, and so on.
Objectives of basic science at secondary according to the new Basic Science and Technology (BST) Curriculum Revised 2012 is expected to enables the learners
1. develop interest in science of technology
2. acquire basic knowledge and skills in science and technology
3. apply scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet contemporary societal needs;
4. take advantage of the numerous career opportunities provided by science and technology.
5. become prepared for further studies in science and technology, it also serve as an essential tool for any nation’s progress and development (Imiere, 2004). Hence all nations all over the world continue to strive to ensure steady improvement in their science curriculum in classrooms.
Globally, science education programmes have afforded tremendous opportunities to young scientists undergoing training interms of the acquisition of skills for solving human problems (Agboghoromo, 2009) one of such skills is the provision of much needed scientific and technological know-know to younger generation. Since its introduction in the school curriculum dates back to 1968 the teaching of basic science has gained ground in various institution of learning at both the junior secondary (JSS) and tertiary levels.
Good teaching methods are known to enhance science learning and improve better academic achievement of students’ in science and thus achieve the objectives or goals of integrated science education. Conversely poor science teaching methods are currently observed in public school science exams and have the opposite effect on students academic performance.
There is therefore the need to explore better teaching methods such as the lecture, demonstration inquiry, laboratory, field trips and peer tutoring methods to find its effects on student academic achievement in basic science.
The adoption of lecture method by most teachers in order to overcome the bulky syllabus of integrated science adversely affects students performance. Researchers believed that in the lecturer method, theory is taught as an absolute knowledge; hence learnr –centred activities for developing scientific reasoning skills and processes are lacking. The lecture method is also known to cause lack of interest and poor performance in science as opined by Njoku (2007). Agbadinuno (2001) contended that science teaching limited exclusively to telling, reciting and memorizing of information is sterile as it does not covey either the meaning or intent of science. This poor teaching methods of science implicated in poor academic achievement of students in the sciences leads to examiners reports on student poor performance in science examinations making them score below average. Akpan (1999) specifically stated that the lecture method is the method dominating science teaching in Nigerian secondary school. Mari (1994) and Okebukola (1997) have called for a change from lecture method in teaching science. This is because of its disadvantages in the learning of science in science classrooms. The demonstration method involves the teacher showing the learners how to perform a task (Adekoya & Otatoye, 2011) for example showing the students the correct use of science apparatus and equipment or performing an experiment. It is a way of teaching good practices for proper internalization of concepts by the students. It involves the teacher showing doing and telling the students the point of emphasis as something is displayed during teaching. This technique allows the teacher to show the results that can be obtained from experimenting with objects, plant and other materials. Demonstration strategy has been shown to be effective with both large and small groups (Adekoya & Olatoye, 2011). The greater the degree of participation and sensory involvement by the learners, the more effective learning will be.
The use of demonstration by teachers have been shown to have positive results on students, academic performance, example (Ameh & Dantani, 2012) noted that the demonstration method has the advantage of being a good way of motivating students to learn and also believed to save time and materials as well as shows how to avoid breakages and accident. (Nzewi & Okeke, 2002) reported that providing students with combination of behavioural objectives on topics using demonstration methods will help in enhancement of the topic and hence for better performance. It is on this background that this research is conducted to investigate the effects of students –centred demonstration. Demonstration & lecture instructional methods of teaching on students’ academic performance in Basic Science.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Several educators including Umeoduagu (1994) have emphasized that the major objective of science education is the development of science process skills amongst school-science students. Students’ poor performance in integrated science are attributed to several learning factors including the shortage of scientific equipment, lack of laboratory facilities, cognitive function of students, home condition, peer group behaviour, emotional predisposition of students, students attitudes and interest as well as teachers. Agboghoroma (2009). The manner is which the subject is presented to students can significantly influence their interest and performance. While the manner of presentation is supposed to be activity-based, most Nigerian secondary school teachers rely on lecture/expository methods which is teacher –oriented and didactic instead of being experimental or activity-based Airi (2002).
Although, a lot of studies have been carried out on the effect o some students centred teaching methods such as action learning and mastery learning strategies on students’ academic achievement in the basic sciences, there is little in the literature to show that such studies have been carried out in the area of Basic Science. This study therefore seeks to determine the effect of students-centred demonstration and lecturer instructional method on students’ academic achievement in Basic science.
1.3 Purpose of the study
1. Determine the effects of demonstration and lecture instructional methods on students mean achievement scores in the concept of change of state in matter in basic science.
2. Ascertain the influence of (male and female on students’ mean achievement scores in the concept of change of state in matter in basic science when taught using demonstration and lecture instructional methods.
3. Determine the influence of location (urban and rural) on students’ mean achievement scores in the concept of change of state in matter in basic science when taught using demonstration and lecture instructional methods.