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PROJECT TOPIC: A STUDY ON UNICEF AND THE CHILD RIGHT ACT IN NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

        The strength of the economy of a country is said to be dependent largely on the mental and social health of women and children of that country. This implies that the prosperity of a nation invariably rests on people-oriented governmental policies for the posterity of that nation[1]. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the government of the given society to formulate policies that will foster and enhance children‟s well-being and education. Findings have shown that most thriving countries in the world are those that place high priority on the well-being of children in the process and practice of governance. Research has also shown that children and women occupy the highest percentage of the population of a given society. Various population censuses that have been carried out in Nigeria have shown that Nigeria is not exempted from the above projected studies. Unfortunately, over the years, this all-important group of people has suffered mostly of the societal ills as a result of lack of legislative policies, legal instrument and ethical framework that support, promote and protect their well-being.

        It is generally known and accepted that children need special care and protection and are dependent upon the aid and assistance of adults, especially in the early years of their existence[2]. In their early years, children depend on adults for their feeding, clothing, and indeed all other aspect of their existence. Under International Human Rights Law, children are considered to be among the vulnerable group and therefore are disadvantaged and needs to be protected by the law. Thus there is no questioning the fact that children constitute the most vulnerable and powerless members of the society. However, the concept that children have specific rights deserving of enforcement and protection is a comparatively modern development. The popular assumption in times past was that most adults and parents in particular, had the best interests of the child at heart, there was thus no necessity to think in terms of children‘s right[3].

[1] OlamideBakare     2013     Child     labour:     A     threat     to     national     development. http://dailyindependentnig.com/2013/11/child-labour-threat-national-development/http://dailyindependentnig.com/2013/11/child</dailyindependentnig.com/2013/11/child-labour-threat-national-development/"

[2] Ladan M T, Introduction to International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Ahmadu Bello University Press, Zaria, (1999), p. 123

[3] Ayua A. I., et al (eds) The Rights of the Child in Nigeria, NIALS, Lagos, (1996) p. 1


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