Project Body:



1.1    Background to the study

In today’s competitive world, advertising has been a way of communication to encourage an audience for making a purchase skincare about a product or service and conveying information to viewers. Advertising plays a vital role in society and it is also an important tool for marketing systems to create a demand for a company’s product in the market, and it should be emphasized on the level of competitive facilities to generate progressive customer attitude and behavior towards the advertised product or service.

        Deceptive advertising is difficult to define(Pettzman,1981), but typically consists of a firm misrepresenting the attributes of the advertised product(Nagler,1993). Deception is one area advertisers and their agents have been found really wanting, yet advertising must have the consumer’s confidence if it is to be effective. Indeed, continued deception is self-defeating because it turns consumers against a product over time (Daramola). Deception through the advertisement is a common phenomenon today. It has long been recognized that advertising can fulfill two functions, 1) provide information to consumers and 2) persuade or mislead consumers (Bagwell 2007, Daule 2013) and deceptive advertisements through the mass media such as TV, radio, billboards, and social media. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) mentioned factors that make an advertisement deceptive, reasonable consumer, express versus implied claims, misleading by omission and materiality. Consumerists demand not only that brands live up to their advertised claims but also that more product information be provided so that consumers can compare and make better buying decisions.

 Deceptive advertising outcome does not only affect the consumers but it also affects the producers and their rivals, and it also affects the producers and their rivals, and it also creates bad impression and distrust for the producers among the consumers.Among others some of the advertisers publish this misleading fraudulent and they have failed to reason that this advert does not only affect the consumers but also as a producer. The outcome or result every advertiser expects after advertising a product is for consumers to make decisions to buy their products. In order for advertisers to get more sales on products been advertised, they try to make the adverts more appealing and pleasing to the consumers, so they can find what they need in the adverts. Most of the consumers nowadays get attached to a product or patronize a product with the popular advertising model AIDA. This model describes steps a customer goes through in the process of purchasing a product (Ryte Wiki). A consumer’s attention is been first drawn to the advert, and later interest is been developed, if interest in the product is aroused, the advertisement creates the desire for the consumer to purchase and the consumer finally takes action to consume the product.

Most cream producers know most young adults are interested in buying body cream that would moisturize, lightening, tone their skin, and since it’s not all cream producers that can offer all this together, but just because they want to make sales, they try to advert the product adding different features that are possible and resulting on the students part to go for it, since it’s what they want in a body cream that has been advertised to them.  Most of the students at the University of Lagos are most of the time the target audience of most cream vendors because they believe they are so bothered about their skin and they would go for what they feel entice them.

Many research studies have evaluated the attitude and behavior of students about deceptive advertising because students are the long run customers and have an ample contribution in the disposable income of the society(Khatak&Khan, 2009), so marketers and businessman apply the technique of advertising to attract the students towards their products.

Previously a series of studies on deceptive advertising has been carried out by various scholars in more advance country where research instruments are available. Little has been done in Nigeria focusing on deceptive advertising and patronage of products. In view of this gap, raised, this study intends to fill the gap of knowledge for deceptive advertising and patronage of body cream.

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