1.1 Background of the Study
Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical portion of the uterus. It sometimes present with vaginal bleeding, but symptoms can be cancelled until the cancer is in its advanced stages (Safaeian, Solomon, and Castle, 2015). Treatment consists of surgery (including local excision) in early stages with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in advanced stages of the disease. If pre-malignant disease or cervical cancer is detected early through screening, it can be monitored or treated relatively non-invasively. Central to the success of any screening programme is its ability to identify, reach and screen the defined target population (Safaeian, Solomon, and Castle, 2015).
Ferlay, Parkin, Whelan, Storm, (2009), in some countries with minimal resources (for example, southeast Asia and south America), one of the major public health challenges facing them is cancer and the most prevalent type of cancer among women in these countries is cervical cancer. The high occurrence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one reasons why there high level and prevalence of cervical cancer among in these countries with low resources, another factor responsible for the high problem of cervical is the absent of effective cervical cancer screening. Sankaranarayanan, Budukh, and Rajkumar, (2011), in some instances the availability of an effective cervical cancer screening programs is not properly harnessed by people because of inadequate knowledge about the importance of the program, also negative health seeking behavior has prevented most women from participating in the program.
The population of women around the world that presently have cervical cancer is about one million and majority of this women do not have access to treatment and they have not been diagnosed, because of their ignorance this make it difficult to prolong their lives (World Health Organization, 2006). In most cases the diagnosis of cervical cancer among women in developing countries is usually at the advance stages and at this stage the chance of survival of these women is usually very low. (Sankaranarayanan, Thara, Ngoma, Naud, and Keita, 2010). In addition, the case of cervical cancer is usually found among women between the ages of 20-29 years and reaches the highest level at the age of 55-64 years and the condition of cervical cancer becomes worse at the age of 65 years. Ferlay, Parkin, Whelan, Storm, (2009), during the period 1993-1997 the case of cervical cancer among women in developing countries is usually found in about 20-55 per women.
The prominent factor responsible for cancer motility in Nigeria is cervical cancer, and study as revealed that cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer across the globe (Adewole, 2008). In Nigeria, the recorded of cases of women who develop cervical cancer annually is about 10,000 while the population of women who are reported dead of cervical cancer annually is about 8,000 women. (Ackerson and Pretson, 2009) assert that one of the most popular cancer that women in Nigeria develops is cervical cancer while, Ogundipe, and Obinna, (2008) documented the incidence rate of cervical cancer as 25/1100,000. The incidence rate recorded is usually low in developed countries like United States because of the availability of an effective cervical cancer screening programs (Adewole, 2008). In Nigeria, some of the challenges responsible for the prevalence of cervical cancer among women are ignorance, cultural beliefs and late reporting (Adewole, 2008).
In health related issue the health workers who are looked upon for health advices and role models are nurses. The populace are often educated by the nurses on the necessity, availability and importance of cervical cancer screening exercises. Because of the involvement of nurses in health related issues, they are seen has individuals who are highly knowledgeable in health related issues and they are expected to model others in these issues but study has shown otherwise.
Cancer has continued to be gradually fatal more so in young women. This results from the thought in women that cancer leads to unavoidable death. Thus Women choose to keep away from screening and remain unconscious of their state of health. Awareness and sensitization regarding cancer affecting the cervix as well as breast continued to reduce and fatality risen as a result of women being ignorant (Patel, 2013).
Cervix cancer results from the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) passed through sex, commonly the male is a carrier of the virus that is passed to females. Both the females and males do not seem to be alert of the virus and the dangers associated with it (Roland, Bernard, Saraiya, Hawkins, Brandit and Friedman, (2009). Therefore, this study focuses on the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among post-natal clients in OOUTH Sagamu.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In developing countries, one of the things that has play an important role in the rate mortality among women is cervical cancer (Adewole, 2008). Cervical cancer is a disease that can be prevented. The prevalence of cervical cancer can be controlled by the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening. In developing countries, one of the disease responsible for the increased rate of mortality among women of middle-aged is cervical cancer (Carr and Sellors, 2014), cervical cancer is a type of cancer that is preventable if it diagnose early and treated before it escalated.