1.1 Background of the Study
The family planning method that involving the incision, occlusion or excision of a portion of the vas deferens is known as Vasectomy. It is a permanent method of contraception and is also known as male sterilization (Benett and Stein, 2014).
Vasectomy is unique among the array of modern contraception as it enables the male partner to take primary responsibility for fertility control. Besides its availability broadens the choice of methods for family planning users and contributes to promoting male involvement in family planning as (Ross & Frankenberg, 2013). Male’s attitudes are often blamed for the underutilization of this method. Frequently cited examples of attitudes which discourage the use of vasectomy include men’s lack of interest in or responsibility for reducing pregnancies, the association with castration, and fear of procedure (Muhondwa & Rutenberg, 2015).
Despite being a safe, simple and effective family planning method for men who want a permanent solution to their contraceptive needs, low awareness and attitudes towards vasectomy still surround its use, deterring men from considering the procedure. It is less expensive and equally as effective as female sterilization; however, vasectomies are one of the least used and known methods of contraception throughout the world (Karamat, Zarel & Arabi 2015).
Recent research in developing countries has revealed that men can play an important role in deciding whether or not women use family planning method. Although vasectomy is an important alternative to female sterilization for couples who want a permanent method of contraception, barriers to its wider use exist in many places (Landry & Ward 2014).
Adewale, Umoh, Iwere and Gbadegesin, (2015) opined that attitude and practice towards modern family planning have attracted much attention in recent times. This is due to increase in unwanted or unplanned pregnancies, induced or criminal abortion, maternal mortality, sexually transmitted diseases, human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevalence among women of child-bearing age.
Therefore, the study focuses on the factors militating against the acceptance of vasectomy as a method of family planning by male married lecturers in Babcock University Ilishan Remo Ogun state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Vasectomy is an absolute contraceptive model for men,that want to control the effectiveness of the sperm on the ovaries of the female gender. It is a permanent method of contraception and is also known as male sterilization (Bruce, Guest, Searing, Frajzyngieri,Riwa,Kannama,Achwal, 2016)
It is a general knowledge that for quite some time in Nigeria family planning has targeted women probably because of the need to free them from excessive childbearing, reduce maternal and infant mortality (Toure, 2011) and curb population growth. Yet the population growth rate is still an issue that needs public attention.
Even though Vasectomy is less expensive, safer, simpler than and as effective as Tubal ligation (female sterilization), it still remains one the least used and least known methods of contraception across the globe (Jacobstein and John, as cited by Getachew, Tatek, and Teresa, 2014). The surgical procedures for female sterilization is known to be five times as many as that of vasectomy for men. According to Bunce et al, (2007), the prevalence of vasectomy is very low and hardly exceeds 0.1% and has remained relatively stable throughout the past decade.
There are so many factors militating against the acceptance of vasectomy as a method of family planning by married men. Some of these factors are Lack of information, misunderstandings and rumors about the vasectomy process, this contribute too many married men reluctance to choose vasectomy (Getachew, Tatek, and Teresa, 2014). Vasectomy clients and their wives frequently recounted that prior to undergoing the procedure, they had been concerned by rumors of decreased sexual desire or performance. Some had heard that this side effect is instantaneous, others that it happens slowly over time. Additional rumors included equating vasectomy with castration, believing it causes cancer, believing that sperm will accumulate in the body and have negative effects, and fears that vasectomy causes weight gain and physical weakness (Getachew, Tatek, and Teresa, 2014).
Another factor is future uncertainty, uncertainty about the future and about the ultimate effect the vasectomy will have on familial interactions was repeatedly mentioned as a barrier to vasectomy uptake. According to a study carried out by Abulie, Getu, and Mezgebu, (2012), respondents worried that a man might regret being permanently sterilized if all of his living children died or if his current wife died and he could not remarry because he could not father any children.