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CHAPTER ONE 1.1 INTRODUCTION In every organizational set up, you will always find two indispensible group. These are the employers and the employees. They constitute the pivot upon which the activities of the organization revalue. The fact remains that in an organization where the employers and the employees are co-operative, it helps to improve their productivity and services. Every organization is set up to attain a defined objective which has to be accomplished of which one of them include high productivity. To do this management has to organize the resources to achieve maximum performance. One of the resources of course are human beings with the output of some factors like machines which will help to determine the kind of results that will be achieved from the activities of the organization. Although it is said that how a man does a job depends on the reward attached to the work. The term ‘reward’ has a complex meaning. As a result of research into human behavior in work situation, we now know that wages a salary meets only one or two important needs of the workers. Every worker requires the organization to treat him as a human being and not as a commodity. Belloc (1994) said that workers have contain in alienable right as important as those of their employer and it is the duty of the organization to recognize those right.

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This project is prompted by the researcher desire to determine: The causes of law moral in workers in an organization Effect of low moral of workers in an organization Strategies to be adopted to improve the moral of workers in an organization.

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM It is an established fact that most organizations in Nigeria render poor services to their customers due to poor training development programme. Most customers spend hours before their needs are been responded to. This phenomenon is predominant in most companies. These problems are caused due to staff inefficiency and poor performance. In spite of some outstanding efforts, most business organizations are still short of skilled manpower personnel necessary for a successful development policy and this symptoms manifest itself in several ways like lack of interest in one’s job, excessive absenteeism rate, excessive complaint and in-surbordination and low quality outputs. Although, it has been pointed out that staff training and development is not the only cause of all management problems, but researcher is of the view that it is an important factor contributing to management problems and this can be avoided and solved by early application of standard adequate training and development programmes for different levels of staff. This will not only boost productivity but also increase morale and reduce flexibility if properly carried out.

1.4 BRIEF HISTORY OF ISOKO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA The Isoko North Local Government Area was created from the former Isoko Local Government Area by General Ibrahim Babangida administration in 1991 with headquarters in Ozoro. Ethnic Composition:- The indigenous inhabitants of the local government area are the Isoko speaking people who lives in several distinct but ethically homogenous communities. These are the Ozoro Clan, Ofagbe Clan, Owhe Clan, Iyede Clan, Ellu Clan, Ovrode Clan, Aradhe Clan, Emevor Clan, Okpe-Isoko Clan, Oyede Clan respectively. Traditional/Political Structure:- The clans are headed by an ovie (king or Odiologbo) who in turn is assisted by chiefs and Edios. These are also the Oletus among others. The council of its creation during the military regime of president Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida was headed by Sir Simon Efenudu as the sole administrator. While it is [presently headed by Hon. Oviemuno Oghoore the chairman of the Local Government Area. The chairman is the chief administrator allocating and security officer of Local Government. He is assisted by a Vice Chairman who also acts as the supervisor for works and services. The council administratively is headed by the director of personnel management divided into several departments namely; Finance and Treasury, Agriculture, Legal Services, Works and Services, and Environment. The council administration is headed by the director of personnel management and the treasurers to the Local Government who are both signatories to the council’s finances.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The significance of this study is that at the end of the investigation into the strategies for improvement of workers morale and productivity in an organization, the research would have thrown light on the problems caused by low morale among workers and reveals those things that would raise workers moral and productivity. This study will be of great importance to both employers and employees as they can know how to reduce the differences between them and improve their productivity. Also, it will be of immense importance to teachers in the field of personnel management and this findings will help them in handling this subject at any time. This will at the same time be of great importance to the government in particular and Nigeria in general as it will provide them with the right understanding of personnel matters.

1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY This study was restricted to Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State and the case study included the secretariat of Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State.

1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS For the purpose of this research project, the following research questions were presented. What are the strategies used for improving workers productivity? Does employees participation on formulation of management policies have any effect on them?

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Time Constrain:- This is as a result of time sharing between attending lectures at school and also travelling from place to place to undertake the study. Finance:- Financial constrain was also a problem in course of carrying out the research work. Health:- Lack of stable and sound health was also a major limitation to this study.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS Low Productivity:- This refers to the process whereby companies are producing below their maximum capacity. Motivation:- This refers to the various strategies which a company or organization can employ in increasing the productivity of it’s employees. Output:- This refers to the final result of production i.e. it means the finished product of any production. Production:- To an economist, production is referred to as the turning of raw materials into finished goods. Thus, the office workers and teachers are not necessary produce goods. Therefore, in this study, we refer to production as all economist activities which takes place to satisfy human wants. Management:- Management can be defined as the act of effectively using scarce resources to achieve set objective by means of natural and acquired skills. Management entails planning, organizing, directing, staffing, coordinating, budgeting as well as controlling. CHAPTER TWO 2.1 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The research has been conducted previously into strategies for improving workers morale and productivity in an organization. To conduct this investigation, several materials are used by the researcher. These include textbooks on Personnel Management, Psychology and Human Relation Thesis. The researcher summarized all the literature reviewed under the following findings.

  1. The extent of workers relationship with top management
  2. The type of leadership in organization productivity.
  3. Evaluation and recognition of the performance
  4. The stick approach

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