Background to the Study
Education is largely a matter of a learning process that involves interaction between teacher and learner. When this process works well, real learning takes place. In the past, academic performance was often measured more by ear than today. Teachers’ observations made up the bulk of the assessment, and today’s summation, or numerical, method of determining how well a student is performing is a fairly recent invention. Grading systems came into existence in the United States in the late Victorian period and were initially criticized due to high subjectivity. Different teachers valued different aspects of learning more highly than others, and although some standardization was attempted in order to make the system fairer, the problem continued. Today, changes have been made to incorporate differentiation for individual students’ abilities, and exploration of alternate methods of measuring performance is ongoing.
The tracking of academic performance fulfills a number of purposes. Areas of achievement and failure in a student’s academic career need to be evaluated in order to foster improvement and make full use of the learning process. Results provide a framework for talking about how students fare in school and a constant standard to which all students are held. Performance results also allow students to be ranked and sorted on a scale that is numerically obvious, minimizing complaints by holding teachers and schools accountable for the components of every grade.
Countries must therefore develop the skills and knowledge of their people and utilize them effectively in order for the nation to develop. This brings to the fore the importance of education. Research evidence indicates that, for human capital to spawn perceptible impact on economic development, a nation needs to have a minimum critical mass of at least 70 percent or more literate population. This is evidenced by the fact that, at the time of Nigeria’s independence, countries that invested heavily in education have higher per capita income now than countries that did not (Pasha et al, 2009).
The issue of teachers’ motivation has become a matter of debate and concern in educational systems and standards. In most developing countries of the world including Nigeria, there has been a growing awareness about teacher motivation which is a key to effective job performance, quality outcomes/delivery and high standards in the educational system. It is acknowledged that any nation that is aspiring to maintain high and quality standards or achieve quality assurance in its educational system must take teachers and their motivational needs with utmost high level of seriousness.
At the core of a nation’s human capital formation is the teacher. Although modern infrastructural facilities are essential in educational institutions, it is largely the work of the teacher that determines the degree of success or failure in the institution’s effort to contribute towards the achievement of national educational development goals. It is the teacher who gives the institution its credibility and determines its character. The teacher is the vehicle through which knowledge is generated and skills developed (Wicke, 2014). Therefore, the role of the teacher in human capital formation is very critical and therefore whatever is required to boost the morale and retain teachers in our educational institutions is of paramount importance. Recognizing that, the teacher is both an embodiment of human capital and also the channel through which the human resource of a nation is developed.
Teachers are important instrument in education. They are also the pivot on which the educational process hang. Teachers play a major role in the whims and caprices of the educational system. They can influence the teaching – learning outcomes either positively or negatively because they determine the quality of instructional delivery and also influence quality education when it comes to implementation of the curriculum and educational policies. They are to be considered when addressing issues such as: quality assurance; quality delivery (teaching), quality context and quality learning outcomes (Onucha, 2012).
The relevance of job satisfaction and motivation are therefore very serious to the long-term growth and development of any educational system. They probably rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, core competencies, educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of an educational system’s success and performance. Professional knowledge, skills and core competencies occur when one feels effective in one’s behaviour. Professional knowledge, skills and competencies can be seen when one is taking on and mastering challenging tasks directed at educational success and performance (Filak and Sheldon, 2013).
The above factors are closely similar to efficacy, and, it is well known that many teachers lose or fail to develop self-efficacy within educational settings (Dweck, 2009). In addition, needs satisfaction and motivation to work cannot be over emphasize and are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. While almost every teacher works in order to satisfy his or her needs in life, job satisfaction in this context is the ability of the teaching profession or job to meet teachers’ needs and improve their job/teaching performance.
Performance in school is evaluated in a number of ways. For regular grading, students demonstrate their knowledge by taking written and oral tests, performing presentations, turning in homework and participating in class activities and discussions. Teachers evaluate in the form of letter or number grades and side notes, to describe how well a student has done. At the state level, students are evaluated by their performance on standardized tests geared toward specific ages.
Many people emphasize the importance of good teachers, and many local, state, and federal policies are designed to promote teacher quality. Research using student scores on standardized tests confirms the common perception that some teachers are more effective than others and also reveals that being taught by an effective teacher has important consequences for student achievement and based on a set of achievements students in each age group are expected to meet. Many factors contribute to a student’s academic performance, including individual characteristics and family and neighborhood experiences. But research suggests that, among school-related factors, teachers matter most. When it comes to student performance on reading and math tests, a teacher is estimated to have two to three times the impact of any other school factor, including services, facilities, and even leadership.
Teachers at all levels of the education system should be adequately trained, respected, remunerated, and able to participate in decisions affecting their professional lives and teaching environments. When teachers are enabled to do their job effectively, their students are enabled to learn effectively. The trust of this paper is on ‘the impact of teacher motivation on academic performance of students’.
However, they are the custodians of the educational and school systems. Since teaching can be regarded as a systematic, rational and organized process of transmitting knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and what is worthwhile (education) in accordance with certain professional principles; there is need for the services of efficient teachers (whose knowledge is bonded with innovations) in order to achieve the educational objectives. Without teachers in the school system, there will definitely be no learning. Teaching makes learning take place and the teacher determines the quality of learning/instructions that will be given to learners. This is the more reason why they should be motivated properly for effectiveness and efficiency in the educational and school system.
Interest in job motivation and satisfaction has attracted attention in recent years. For decades, researchers have been concerned with the job satisfaction, job performance relationship. The implicit assumption guiding this research has been that a happy worker is a productive worker. Research on the topic of job satisfaction has been conducted in the past 65 years (Koutelios, 2011). It is estimated that there are over 5000 studies of job satisfaction which have been published as at 2012. Much of these researches have been based on the explicit assumptions that the lack of job satisfaction is a potential determinant of absenteeism, high labour turnover, in-role job performance and extra-role behaviours and also that, the primary antecedents of job attitude are within management ability to influence.
Teachers in Nigeria as elsewhere are expected to render a very high job performance, and the Ministry of Education (MOE) is always curious regarding the job performance of its teachers. Also, the Ministry of Education demands a very high measure of loyalty, patriotism, dedication, hard work and commitment from its teachers (Ubom and Joshua, 2014). Similarly, the roles and context of educations’ motivational methods and tools cannot be over emphasized because high motivation enhances productivity which is naturally in the interests of all educational systems (Ololube, 2005). This explains why nations and organizations have become interested in motivation which leads to job satisfaction of their employees with the view to retain, maintain and utilize them to the best of their abilities. Most research on teachers in Nigeria has concentrated on the recruitment of teachers and how it affects retention (Utuka 2011; Asmah, 2009 etc), without examining what teachers are looking for in their work.
According to Ingersoll (2011) recruitment programs would not solve staffing problems in schools; instead, the organizational causes of low teacher retention should be considered. One factor driving the need to support teachers is the critical and growing shortage of professional staff in public schools. Equally worrying is that, teachers new to the profession continue to leave in large numbers. Available evidence show that, up to, 30 percent of new teachers posted in more deprived districts leave within the first 5 years in the USA (Darling-Hammond, 2011). Data on Nigeria’s situation is not readily available, but the attrition rate of teachers may not be different if not worse. For example, a study on causes and consequences of teacher attrition in Senior High Schools (SHS) in the Greater Abuja Region, it was discovered that 88 percent of the respondents (94% males and 86% female teachers) indicated their intention to leave the teaching profession (Spio, 2009). Given these statistics, the necessity for retaining teachers, particularly in critical areas, is evident.
Statement of the Problem
Teachers in Nigeria have expressed a lot of dissatisfaction about the lack of human resource development, poor working conditions, poor remuneration and poor human relations that exist in schools (Bame, 2005). This has resulted in high teacher turnover coupled with poor results in College of Education due to lack of commitment towards work. Some newly recruited teachers stay at post for barely one year. The operating conditions of service appear to fall short teachers expectation manifesting in regsignations, vacation of post, non –resumption at post after teachers leave of absence and sponsored study leave. The general mood of those remaining is not encouraging as they exhibit other forms of withdrawal behavior such as absenteeism, lateness and passive job behavior Unfortunately, in spite of the importance and complexity of these issues, there is very limited good quality literature has been published on them ( Bennel 2014).
This research will focus on the above mentioned factors. The researcher set out to throw more light on factors influencing teacher commitment to Nigeria Education Service so that management of education institutions can do something to motivate teachers to improve their level of commitment.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of motivation on Accounting and teachers job performance in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti. The main objectives of the study are:
To investigate teachers’ motivational level in College of Education in the Ikere-Ekiti.
To determine the link between motivation, job satisfaction, and job commitment of teachers in selected College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti.
To identify social and work related variables militating against staff motivation, job satisfaction and job commitment of teachers in selected College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti.
To make recommendations for the improvement of job motivation and commitment of teachers in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti in particular and Nigeria in general.
The following were the research questions used as a guide for the study.
What motivational factors influence job commitment of teachers?
Is there a relationship between job motivation, and job commitment of teachers in College of Education?
What are some of the problems faced by teachers who are highly committed to their job in College of Education?
Does Nigeria Education Service make effort to motivate and satisfy teachers in College of Education?
Significance of the Study
Identifying motivational factors, social and work related factors influencing teacher’s commitment will inform major stake holders of institutions such as the Ministry of Education, and Nigeria Education Service and Nigeria Government in formulating policies geared toward addressing low commitment and high staff turnover in the Nigeria Education Service. This will help in reducing the teacher’s dissatisfaction and boost their morale to make them more committed to their job. It is also hoped that this study would encourage more interest in research and pave the way for an in- depth study of the problems on motivation and job commitment on a wider dimension than has been pursued in this research.
Scope of the Study
The researcher fully acknowledges the fact that a research of this nature and significance should have covered a large number of employees of Nigeria Education Service. Unfortunately, resources at the disposal of the researcher made it impossible for a study of that magnitude as a result the study was limited to Accounting department in College of Education teachers in Ikere-Ekiti. The rationale for selecting this was to investigate what factors play a role in the teacher motivation and job commitment in the above mentioned schools. The schools were selected because they have a well dedicated staff which the researcher feels confident that they could help to provide an in- depth study of the problem.