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The origin of topography comes from “topo” for “place” and graphic for “writing” its closely related to geology and surveying which are concerned with accurately the land surface. And it’s also closely tied to geography and mapping system the GIS,

Evaluation is the distinguishing factor for topography maps. In GIS, we use digital elevation model for terrain. Ten out of ten topography maps shows contour lines which are just lines of equal elevation. The narrow definition of topography is specific to the arrangement of land forms.

But in a loader sense, it incorporates natural and artificial features. For example:

Topography maps often tie in administrative boundaries, cities, hydrographic parks, transportation and buildings, contour lines (Iso-lines) connect points of equal elevation by reading contours. We interpret height slope and shape in topography maps.

If contours are close together the slop is steep. But when contours are spread apart the slope is more gradual. We use contours for mountains valleys and bathymetry. For example, Mount Fuji stands at 3,776 meter spacing each contour lines represents equal elevations. Almost at the place of mountain Fuji. It is a 3750 meter contour line.

There is no “World Authority” in topography mapping instead each country set their mapping agency designs their own topography maps with a specific goal in mind. For example constructing a meal high way might drive a topographic ma to feature wood land cover, soil types or rock classification along the route, overtime topographic map series often het periodic updates, but the true is that they can be complex and take years to create. In the United States, the first USGS topographic map was surveyed in 1892. Since then, map revision have continued for over 125+ years. The USGS procedure topo maps at 1:250,000, 1:100,000, 1:63, 360, 000 and 1:24,000. The most common is the 7:5 minute quadrangle series where one inch in the map representing 24,000 inches on the ground.

Another good example of topographic map is the USGS topes fug of time and terrain this colorful map, its overlays topography (hill shade) with understanding rock formations. This helps unravel the geologic history of the continent such as mountain building events.

Topography Application and Uses

Topography maps show how rivers flow, how high mountain rise and how steep valleys descend. They lay out the land such as in these examples.

Engineering use topographic maps to plan a road, construct a called tower or plan a hydro electric dam.

Geologist Use Topography to Understand telboric activity . Land forms and where to dig a mine

Hackers use topographic map to fund trials and steepness of slope to plan their ascent.

Astronomers study the topography outside earth like on the moon, mars or an as steroid climate scientist tie topography into climate models to recognize air and water-flow. As landscapes evolve and technology advances topographers face an uphill battle for accuracy and completeness


This study aims of carrying out a topographic survey of government technical college Idah Kogi State.


This study is out to archive the following objectives

i.       Reconstitute a sight in synthesized image of the ground.

ii.      Determine of trajectory of over flight of the ground.

iii.    Calculate surface or volumes.

iv.    Trace topographic profile.


Engineers need a topographical survey to see the surface of elevation of the land and whether dirt must be inserted or removed to adjust the property grade

Architect could use the survey for construction of 3D plot of their design this plot can be submitted before talking with decision makers for approval of a building site is transited by significant topographical challenges such as steep grades, existing main made structure’s or other problematic conditions a topographical inspection should be used to ensure that the design proposed will work under these conditions before construction start.

Government agencies also users topographical surveys to produce employment evaluate existing infrastmeture, carry out required revisions and consider environmental projects and emplace mat the construction and zooming regulation. 

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