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This research is to look into the need for vocational training Service for Special Needs Children Kaduna State Special Education School. Vocational training service is a service that gives special needs persons information an skills that are functional and appropriate with their various needs. The information, advice and counseling will enable the Special Needs Persons to be aware of their areas of strength, ability, capacity, interest and weakness so that they choose the appropriate skills they would want to acquire to help them in their choices of jobs.

Vocational training service unit will direct them to learn skills that will facilitate easy employment opportunities that will not make them lack jobs in the labour market.

Vocational training is one of the programsorganized to assist the special needs individuals to understand himself and self realization in a democratic culture but also to make him develop some very suitable skills for vocational goals.

Vocational training is a process by which activities essentially aimed at providing the knowledge and skills required for initial or later employment or promotion in a particular sector of economic activity.

Vocational service, adjustment and integration are essential aspects that will help rehabilitation of a special needs person.

Special needs persons are those that have any chronic physical or mental incapacity resulting from injuries, disease or congenital defects (Goderson 1978) while Macdonald (1980) perceives special needs condition as a situation by which an individual either through Injury, Disease, or Hereditary is Socially, Physically, or Intellectually deprived, Weakened, or Crippled, Incapacitated, Disqualified, Depreciated, disparaged or undervalued in any area of human endeavour.

The concept special needs donates any relatively mild to severe or chronic impairment of functioning that results in physical, mental, social, occupational problems, for the Special Needs Persons to become functional and relevant in the society, he requires special education and a host of services as vocational training so that they can be fully rehabilitated by earning a livelihood and maintaining themselves.


By Nature Special Needs persons are perceived as 2nd class citizens with less rights and are always relegated to the background. They do not have the ability to complete with the so called ‘‘Normal’’ student in the classroom which further increase the existing gap and exposes them to more suffering and hardship at the labour market with inadequate vocational preparations.

The special needs are for behind intellectually as such are either rejected or totally ignored by the society. Most of them are denied access to basic social amenities, such as good residential service, vocational facilities, such as workshopsfor better skills acquisition for them to compete in labour market to earn a living for themselves.


The purpose of this study is know the importance attached to vocational training service for special needs persons and special education in general, specifically the purpose is :

1)    To determine whether the special needs persons are given vocational training services.

2)    To determine whether vocational training will help special needs persons.

3)    To determine whether there is provision for vocational (training.) workshop.

4)    To enlighten the public on the benefit special needs will enjoy when given vocational training in occupations that are functional.


This study when completed will highlight whether vocational training service is made available for Special Needs in Kaduna state special education school.

The special need members or this nation not by accident have a role to play in the economic emancipation by contributing to our development when provided with all the necessary service to enable them live a reasonable productive life as well as benefit from the services received. Furthermore, the recommendations will in many way help the school, state, administrators and the national at large in upgrading the status of the special needs persons as well as alleviating the problems of the Special Needs Persons themselves.


1)    Do you have a vocational training workshop in Kaduna state special school?

2)    Is the vocational training workshop functional?

3)    Do you have an occupational therapist at the workshop?

4)    How adequate are the vocational services?

5)    What is the level of government involvement in the provision of such vocational training service?

6)    Do you think vocational training service is very important in job preparation?

7)    What is the employment prospect of vocationally trained special needs persons from your school?

8)    Do you think vocational training service has any significant role in changing the special needs persons?

9)    Do you think acquisition of functional vocational skills will improve the special needs person chances of employment opportunities? 


This research study is limited to Kaduna state special education school in Kaduna North Local Government of Kaduna state, in Kaduna metropolis.

The school is located off Katsina road near former Kaduna clinic and behind Government Girls Secondary School along independence way.

The main focus of the study is to investigate the need for vocational training service for the special needs children in Kaduna state special education school.


(a) SPECIAL NEEDS OR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN:- (in the context of children at school) particular educational requirements resulting from learning difficulties, physical disability, or emotional and behavioral difficulties.

(b) HEARING IMPAIRED:-The deaf hard of hearing is a technically accurate description of someone who is hard of hearing or who has no hearing. However many Deaf, hard of hearing and later deafened people prefer not to be called impaired. They don’t want to be primarily defined by their lack of (or poor) hearing. While it’s true that their hearing is not perfect, that doent make them impaired as people. Most would prefer to be called Deaf, Hard of Hearing or deaf when the need arises to refer to their hearing status, but not as a primary way to identify them as people (where their hearing status is not significant).

(c) ABSOLUTE BLINDNESS:-is the lack of visually perception due to structural or functional defect, which can occur any place from the eyelids to the visual cortex.

(d) DISABILITY:-The term disability can be described as either physical or mental condition which limits the person activity, functional or performance.

(e) HANDICAP:-Is refers to the problems and difficulties the person encounter because of physical disability or behavioral characteristics that mark him or her different from other individuals. The word handicap is a more restrictive term than exceptional and does not include the gifted, instead the termHandicapinclude the mentally retarded, the learning disabled, the emotionally disturbed, the hearing impaired severe and multiple handicaps.

(f) REHABILITATION:-Achievement of the fullest physical, mental, social, and economic usefulness of which the handicapped individual is capable.

(g) REHABILITATION SERVICE:-Medical, psychological, social, and vocational services including any good or services which are necessary for rendering a handicapped person fit to engage in gainful activity.

(h) HARD OF HEARING OR DEAF:-When the need arises to refer to their hearing status, but not as a primary way to identify them as people (where their hearing status is not significant).

(i) VOCATIONAL TRAINING GUIDANCE & COUNSELLING SERVICES:-Deals with matters of occupational choice, career planning preparation, placement and adjustment on the job. It includes a program of assisting individuals in arriving at wise vocational choices among occupational and educational options, in securing employment for which he is trained and in the making of necessary adjustment and advancements in the jobs, so that he might live a happy, successful and useful life as a family member, worker or good citizen.

(j) JOB PLACEMENT:-The finding of employment, the goal of matching a given pattern of job knowledge and skill which a client has with the requirement of identifiable occupation.

(k) EMPLOYEMENT:-Work in competitive labour market, the practice of a profession, self-employment and other gainful human activity excluding criminality.

(l) PARTIALLY SIGHTED:-Is a registered charity that was formed in 1971 to provide high quality information, advice, support, training, equipment, and clear print material for the benefit of people with a visual impairment to help them make the best possible use of their sight.

1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:-This study is planned to identify the vocational training programmes employed in the rehabilitation of persons with special needs, special reference to Kaduna state special school. The study is best by several difficulties, Theyare:-

(i) The study covered only one special school. Two or more schools would have been more appropriate, consequently generalization is not feasible.

(ii)The respondents were not enthusiastic about the study and as a result this might effects the reliability of the result generally.

   However, notwithstanding the observed limitations, the research finding are highly legitimate and can meet the demands of modern experiments especially within the domains of special education.

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