INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A multinational enterprise is a business enterprises that carries on operation in more than country through a network of branches, division, influenced invests and subsidiaries.
Multinational enterprises obtain raw material and capital in countries where such as plateful, multinational enterprises manufacture their product on nations where wage and other operating cost are lowest and they sell their product in countries that provide the most profitable market.
An accounting system is the possible ways or method in which accounting concepts may be applied to financial transactions.
Accounting policies refer to the accounting basic used by a company when accounting its financial statement.
Accounting system in multinational companies varies with the nature of operation type of business as well as the accounting standards principal and adopted by each company.
Accounting for multinational companies is one of several recognized specialist in the accounting, auditing, management accounting, behavioural accounting and financial information system.
The history of accounting is an international one double entry book-keeping often though of as the genesis of today, accounting eliminated from Italian city-state of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, in due course, Italian city state book-keeping migrated t Germany, France, the lowland and subsequently to Britain, the Britain influence spread accounting and auditing techniques not only to north American but brought out the existing Britain common wealth.
Multinational enterprises face a number of reporting requirement not applicable to domestic enterprises.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM.
There are several problems that are faced in the appraised of the accounting system in multinational companies operation some of them are: -
a. The conflict and difficult included by different national accounting standard and practices.
b. The problem of adjusting financial statement to reflect the various level of inflation in different countries.
c. The deficiency in the consolidation of the financial statement of foreign subsidiaries and the regulative affects in the multinational setting.
d. The problem of determining the total return from a multinational setting
e. The problem involved in foreign exchanged transaction into the accounting system in multinational company operation.
f. Internalization of some technical accounting standards.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
The specific objectives of the study are: -
a. To investigate the affect of numerous existing the national accounting rules and regulations on multinational companies operations.
b. To examine the events have influenced the type of accounting system adopted in multinational companies.
c. To examine the problem of conversion of foreign exchange transaction brought about by the internalization accounting.
d. To examine the effect of consolidation of the financial statement of foreign subsidiaries or affiliates on multinational settings.
e. To investigate the effects of internalization of accounting on multinational enterprises operations.
f. To ascertain the area the clearly require adjustment in their accounting system.
g. To highlight the effect of competition on the sales procedure.
h. To examine the kind accounting books on records being kept as well as the type of account prepared in relation with the nature of operation in existence.
i. To examine the accounting policies adopted by the multinational companies.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
This study will serve the following usefulness.
a. It will undoubtedly contribute tremendously to the accrete efficiency of the accounting system of the case study company and accounting system of the multinational company as a whole.
b. It will also contribute to the adoption of a uniform international companies.
c. This study will need for proper accounting system that meet international accounting standards.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION.
In the course of this study, the experimental and group theory approach and question was adopted. This school of thought in favour of this approach open that the knowledge sought in any research is collect and or such that finding research is emerge from the analysis of the result achieves the group theory approach exchange the use of research question and simply to extract the necessary information required.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY.
The scope of the study covers the following
a. The requirement of various accounting standard and practice in multinational enterprises.
b. Accounting for braches.
c. Accounting for joint ventures.
d. Accounting for transaction involving foreign currencies (foreign branch and subsidiaries)
e. Computerized accounting system.
f. Business combination and consolidation financial statements.
1.7 STUDY PLAN.
The study of plan is organized into five chapters.
Chapter one is the introduction: this entail giving definition of the study that is stating the theoretically background to study. It also enter highlighting the statement of the study, the scope and limitation of the study.
Chapter two the literature review: in this chapter topic relating to the study from different author are discussed. Topic such as determination of accounting system, multinational companies branches, accounting system, summary of the requirement of statement of accounting practice (ssrs) foreign currency transaction as well as accounting for group of companies.
Chapter three is the case of study and methodology: this given on historical background of the case study, which is a Cadbury plc. In Lagos. It also discusses the issue of research and source of data.
Chapter four is the data presentation and analysis: this entails stating the analysis of data computation of effectiveness of the study and statement of hypothesis.
Chapter five give the summary, conclusion and recommendation: is also highlights major of final summary and conclusion drawn the issues and useful recommendation.