1.1 Background of the Study
The exploitation and production of oil in the Niger- Delta have created some of the largest fortunes for the multinational companies and have helped to achieve impressive economic growth and development of the Niger state, but little or no attention has been directed by both the multinational companies and the Nigeria governments to the effects of such oil activities on the welfare of oil producing communities (Ikein,1990). Oil has not as expected brought prosperity, better living conditions and governmental attention and development; rather it has become a curse and impoverishes the inhabitants of the Niger-Delta region. (Akeen,2010). However a fight for their rights against the multinational companies and the Federal Government has resulted in large-scale violence, crisis, social tension, hostage taking, man slaughter, kidnapping and other social vices of the region. Which has led to the withdrawal of major oil producing companies from the region (Ibeanue, 2005)? The low level of oil production as a result of insecurity of lives and property in the region has a strong negative impact on the Nigerian economy (Ikelegbe, 2008). In their effort to bring the situation under control, the multinational companies, governments and other stakeholders have been clamoring for peace in the Niger- Delta region to boost economic development.