In all the varied field of human activity, we are concerned to used of limited resources that are available to us. Thus the intention is to obtain the greatest out put from a given input and in measuring this we may state how efficiently the input has been used.While the measurement of efficiency may be done in quantitative terms e.g. a number of yam tuber from an acre of land. It is normally essential to express inputs and outputs in monetary term as it is the common denominator of resources we use. By recording these monetary values the accountant is able to measure the result of industrial and commercial activities and inform those responsible for them.
The work of the accountant has develop over the year from accurate accounting for movement in cash and transaction with third parties, it now includes the provision of financial data and with which management may plan future activities and of data with which to measure how efficiently activities are being managed.The earlier type of work we may call financial accounting and development is cost accounting and management accounting uses cost and financial data advice management in planning and controlling the enterprise.
Management needs guidance in the interpretation of cost information, if wise decisions are to be made in such matters as costing of products and services, production policy and pricing of products. A management system is therefore necessary in planning each factor in the cost