1.1 Background to the Study
The trend and the volume are increasing on a daily basis and all levels of the society are involved. The rich, the poor, the young and the elderly, the male and female all are neck deep in fraud and fraud related activities that say a lot about our moral and family situations. From the politicians to the bank directors/executives, from the legal officers to the law enforcement personnel, from the civil servants to the school teacher, from the trader in the market to the hawkers on the street, the tendency for fraud and fraud related crimes is endless.
The first and most sophisticated way of carrying out the fraudulent activities in many organizations is through the accounting and financial records. It is a recognized fact that the management of Enron-the celebrated energy company in USA defrauded by her top management – used creative accounting to make the company look good and powerful on paper than it really was using special purposes subsidiaries that have a single purpose and that did not need to be included in Enron’s balance sheet to hide risky investment activities and financial losses. However, forensic accounting helped subsequently to determine that many of Enron’s recorded assets and profits were inflated, and in some cases, completely fraudulent and nonexistent. Some of the company’s debts and losses were recorded in offshore entities, remaining absent from Enron’s financial statements (Folger, 2011).