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PROJECT TOPIC: THE PALYNOSTRATIGRAPHIC STUDIES OF RAST WELL 13 NIGER DELTA BASIN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0  GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Niger delta is one of the sedimentary basins in Nigeria. It is a pericratonic basin found at the margin of craton and therefore regarded as open ended basin. The inception of the delta started in the early cretaceous time and since that period, it has been the scene of at least three depositional cycles (Evamy, et al. 1978) The development of the delta has been dependent on the balance between the rate of sedimentation and the rate of subsidence. This balance and the resulting sedimentary pattern appear to have been influenced by the structural configuration and tectonics of the basement rocks. The barrier bars and fluviate sediments may precede the transgressive episodes which terminate the cycles. Details of the surface geology of the area have been published by the geological survey of Nigeria. The Formation Nomenclature has been improved and defined by Reyment (1957). It suffices to note that the tertiary Niger delta covers an area of about 75,000km2 and is composed of an overall regressive clastic sequence which amounts to a maximum thickness of 9,000 t0 12,000 meters (Evamy, et al, 1978). Precisely Niger delta originated as a result of RRR triple joint development in the early cretaceous period (Burke et al 1975).  The geologic history of the Niger delta has been dependent/controlled by three major tectonic phases. Two arms of the RRR-tripple generation spread continuously bringing the continent of Africa and south America to their present position. The third arm closed before the end of cretaceous after spreading for 30,000,000 years from Benue Abakaliki trough. The Formation within the Niger Delta includes Benin, Agbada and Akata Formations. Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs including pollen, spores, orbicules, dinoflagellate cysts, acritachs, chitonozoans and scoledonts together with the particular organic matter (pom) and sediments palynology does not include diatoms. Foraminiferas or other organisms with silicaceous or calcareous exoskeletons. Palynology is an interdisciplinary science and is a branch of earth science (geology or geological science) and biological science (biology), particular plant science (botany). Stratigraphical palynology is a branch of micropaleontology and paleontology and paleobotany which studies fossil palynomorphs from the Precambrian to the Holocene. The earliest reported observations of pollen under a microscope are likely to have been in the 1640s by the English botanist Nehimiah grew who successfully predicted that pollen was required for successful reproduction in plants. The earliest quantitative analysis of pollen was published by Lennant Van Post who laid out the foundation of modern pollen analysis in his Kristiania lecture of 1916. Pollen analysis was initially confined to Nordic countries because many early publications were in Nordic languages. This isolation ended with the publication of Gunnar Erdtmans thesis of 1921 when pollen analysis became widespread throughout Europe and North America for use in studies of quartenary vegetation and climate change. The term palynology was introduced by Hyde and Williams in 1944 following correspondence with the Swedish geologist Antevs, in the page of the pollen analysis circular (one of the first journals devoted to pollen analysis produced by Paul Sears in North America). Hyde and Williams chose palynology on the basis of the greeks words (paluno) meaning to sprinkle and pale meaning dust (and thus similar to the latin word pollen). Palynomorphs are broadly defined as organic walled microfossils between 5 and 500 micrometers in size. 


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