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PROJECT TOPIC: EXTRACTION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI MICROBIAL SCREENING OF WHITE STAR APPLE (Crysophyllum Albidum) SEED OIL

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ABSTRACT Crysophylum albidum oil was extracted from its seed. The percentage yield was 2.56%. The characterization of the oil showed showed that the refractive index is 1.487, peroxide value is 45.4mg/kg, iodine value is 50.76g, saponification value is 105.188, free fatty acids 47.46 and acid value is 94.92. The Punched Ager Diffusion Method was used to assay for the antimicrobial and anti fungal properties of the oil in the test isolate. The antimicrobial and anti fungal activity showed some inhibitory effects against test organisms; Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, B. subfilis, C. albican and A. flavons, but non for S. pyogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these test organisms are as follows; Staphylococcus aureus 0.16, E. coli 0.06, B. subfilis 0.14, C. albican 2.50 and A. flavons  0.40. The pharmacological screening confirmed the medical value of this plant oil and it established a good support for the sample in herbal medicine and as a base for the development of new drugs and phytomedicine.

TABLE OF CONTENT CONTENT                                                                             Title page                                                                               Declaration                                                                                               Certification                                                                                      Dedication                                                                                                 Acknowledgment                                                                                     Table of content                                                                             Abstract                                                                                           

CHAPTER ONE 1.1    INTRODUCTION                                                                   LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                  1.2    TYPES OF OIL                                                                      1.2.1 Drying oil                                                                                 1.2.2 Semi-Drying Oil                                                                     

NON- DRYING OIL                                                    

1.3    COMPOSITION OF OIL                                                       1.4    PIGMENT                                                                          

VITAMINS                                                                                        ANTIOXIDANTS                                                                            

1.7    BOTANIC DESCRIPTION                                                   

1.8    FUNCTIONAL USES                                                           

CHAPTER TWO MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                      2.0    SAMPLE COLLECTION                                                       2.1    OIL EXTRACTION                                                                2.2    DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY                     2.3    DETERMINATION OF DENSITY                                        2.4    DETERMINATION OF FREE FATTY ACID CONTENT                                                                             

    1. DETERMINATION OF SAPONIFICATION VALUE          
    2. DETERMINATION OF IODINE VALUE                           
    3. DETERMINATION OF PEROXIDE VALUE                     
    4. ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY SCREENING                     
      1. REAGENTS AND MEDIA                                             
      2. PREPARATION OF FUNGAL TEST ORGANISM           
      3. PREPARATION OF THE SENSITIVE TEST AGAR                  
      4. PREPARATION OF THE NUTRIENT DEXTROSE

AGAR                                                                                     2.8.5 THE PUNCHED AGAR DIFFUSION METHOD AS RECOMMENDED BY BRYANT (1972)                              2.7.6 BACTERIAL INOCULATION AND INCUBATION             2.8.7 FUNGAL INOCULATION AND INCUBATION                            

READING INHIBITION ZONES OF THE OIL                    

CHAPTER THREE TABLE 3.1 ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF Crysophylum albidum SEED OIL                                                  3.2    CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAMPLE                         TABLE 3.3 RESULT OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF C. albidum OIL ON TWO GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA                 TABLE 3.4 RESULT OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF C. albidum OIL ON TWO GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA               TABLE 3.5 RESULT OF ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITY OF C. albidum OIL ON TWO TEST FUNGI                                                           3.6    RESULT OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION (MIC) OF C. albidum OIL ON SIX TEST ORGANISM                

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0    DISCUSSION                                                                      4.1    CONCLUSION                                                                   

    1. RECOMMENDATION                                                           

REFERENCES                                                                                APPENDIX I                                                                                    

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