In the olden days, it was a well-known facts, that a rich and wealth man is known by the number of children and yam barns he had. (Greater in number) but recently, the reverse is the case, in that a rich and wealth man is known as a man with lesser number of children who he takes greater care of. The mass media had played a contributory role recently to educate parents in particular and the public in general of family planning programmes. This work however, is on how the mass medial family planning programmes have reached the target audience the moreover, how they feel about it. The research work has gone to prove that the family planning programmes as show on the screen or listed to by the audience had in one way or the other changed the attitude of some families positively towards child spacing.
Family planning as a concept of world social order is as old as man. It could be said to be a means of population control other then by disease, war, or other natural and man made disasters. The term “family panning” was only applied to this ageless phenomenon when the social effects of abandoned babies, clue to illegal abortion and problem of outsize poor families began to seriously bother the mind of sociologists, health workers and governments. Family planning has received media coverage around the world since it’s inception in 1916. Initially people reacted against it, due to misconception and ignorance of aim and values of family planning, but as the issue develop, it clear the people’s eyes and their perception more enlightened. Internationally, the United Nation (UN) through an agency, the world health organization (WHO) has championed the publicity campaign for the introduction and the development modification and sometimes outright discontinuation of some aspect to the family planning qualified media coverage and manifested the importance of population in planning for world demographic and Economics distribution.
1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF FAMILY PLANNING The origin of family planning can bee traced to the concern shown by two sisters Margaret sanger (1966-1976) married and her sister Ethel, on the tremendous loss of lives usually involving schools gulls and woman during childbirth. Sanger who was trained as a nurse carried out a very courageous crusade against the legal system in the united state of American in the early part of the country to get abortion legalized. She was known to have developed the phrase “Birth control” to and have set up clinics in 1916. Another, woman, Marie Stapes, followed Margaret’s steps seven years later by setting up a “Birth control” clinics in London in 1923. It was not until 1952, that family planning made it’s first imprint on the international scene in the year, an international conference of family planning was held in Bombry on November 29th, This was the birth of the international planning parenthood federation (IPDF) under the joint chairmanship of Margaret Sanger and Lady Ranca Rau. Meanwhile, the acceptance of family planning as a practice has show at the first time. Sweden, because of the first world action of family planning came in twenty-four years after the birth “IPPE” in 1976 and sixty years alter Sanger opened the first “Birth control clinic”. It was funds to the united nation funds for population activities (UNFPA). During the long period of uncertainty in the development and acceptance of family planning the phenomenon was widely regarded believed to be a public health exercise designed to improve the health of the mother and child in the family, it was only later when scientist (social and physical) began to take more interest in the issue that it began to be strictly associated with an aim at population control, in conjunction with the General improvement of family health and consequently national and world health. The development of the world and national economic also depend very much on the planning the uses population in his famous essay on the principles of population 1798. He said that population was increasing faster than the rate of which food was being produces. He postulated that the world economics order was developing in arithmetical progression. 1,2,3, while population was increasing in geometrical progression 2,4, and 6.This assertion corroborated with the world population growth rate project as show in charts AP. Today, family planning is a worldwide activity, implemented and financed by the PPFN. In Nigerian, the planed parent-hood federation of Nigerian (PPFN) formerly known as the family planning council of Nigerian (FPCN) was established in 1960 as a reaction and social welfare profess to the prevailing social and health relate problems of the time. These problems include child dumping unwanted pregnancies leading to illegally induced abortions and morality (death) resulting from too closely spaced pregnancies. The proposal to establish the family planning council of Nigerian was considered after the occurrence to two tragic cases septic abortion of 1957. These cases attracted the attention of the marriage guidance council in Lagos to existing family planning problems. As a result this, a committee was set up to investigate the need for family planning services in the country. The reports of this committee revealed that it was a common practice among married and unmarried woman with unwanted pregnancies to commit illegal abortion. Family planning services was therefore needed to stop or reduce it (abortion). In 1962 Miss. Edith Gate of the pathfinder find visited Nigerian and met with the members of the National council of woman societies (NCNS). This led to the setting up of a family planning committee with the responsibilities for family planning activities and marriage counseling. CHARTS A1: INORID POPULATION GROWTH ESTIMATE 10,000 BC 5 Million 1 AC 200 Million 1959 AD 500 Million 1962 AD 3 Billion 1971 AD 3.7 Billion 2002 AD 9 Billion
Source: A guide to family planning S.K. Nwangori PP15. Varuom family planning programmes on the English and Vernacular such Nigerian –Television Authority N.T.A. channel 8 Enugu. In lighter mood, ESBS “Ezi na ulo” have also been initiated to arouse the consciousnesses of people to the dangers and problems inherent in giving birth to more children that one cannot adequately and conveniently cater and care for. As a result, the present hash Economics realistic, a new population policy was introduced by the government whereby four children will be the maximal a woman will bare. The government went further to sponsor some radio and television jingles on population and family planning. It should be noted that the media plays a significant role in the spread of the family planning though their various educational programmes on rational and benefits of family planning in order to build up healthy and happy families. This study attempts to find out to what extent the media has gone in performing this role and how the media massage has influenced the discussion of the audience in the family panning matters. It also attempts to know how population control can hap the economies growth of family and the state as a whole.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Its important to make it clear that family planning is not just for stopping child bearing but it is also for child spacing. In Nigeria, evidence shows that over population has been one of problem in economics development. The problem is that people behave to bear the entire child in their womb, without knowing the result. Population has to be control, to the availability of resource to the counting, to enable the countries economics growth suit the population. In doing so, the countries social, cultural and economic development will grow. Meanwhile, the media in it’s own has face many problems on family planning programmes. Theses problems was as a result how infrastructure equipment etc. These problems are the factors, which contribute to the media from reaching it target audience.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to examine the media coverage in family planning programmes and the effects of such coverage on the attitude of the families in Enugu state towards family planning.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Firstly, this research work is aimed at finding out whether media coverage of family planning programmes in Enugu state has helps the people to know about the family planning and adopt them to their various families. Secondly, what more could be done and in what area, to reach the people with enough and timely information and facilitate on the family planning. Since the families of most poor people in Enugu state are know to be over populated, the application of family planning principles is considered of importance cutting down on the fade of excessive family six. A National population growth enhance by the family planning is believed to be necessary to make the government releases the objective of efficient and even development of nation on all phase of life. The result of this research will help family planning organization to know the media strategies that are most effective in decimating family planning information.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY Enugu state and beyond are the area for this study. The result of this study will be generalized to high validity in that it can bee carryout in any other place with a reasonable identical result provided that factors like social, economics, political, religion, influence the value system of each area taken into account and adequately adjusted.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1) In what ways have the media helps families to adopt family planning programmes. 2) How does, some families in south East adopt the technique. 3) How many times does, families visit family planning clinics. 4) Does viewing of television campaign, change families, on family planning? 5) What extent does education effects the adopting of these family planning programmes.
1.8A HYPOTHESIS H1: The media have played an effective role in family planning in the South East. H0: The media have not played effective role in all in family planning programmes. H2: The mass media coverage have motivated many families on adopting of family planning programs. H0: The mass media have not motivated family planning programmes. H3: The number of time, one visited family clinics does not change one’s attitude of the adopting family planning. H0: Number of time, one visited family planning clinic does planning programmes.
1.8B ASSUMPTIONS The research assumed that respondents of this study have access to radio, television, Newspaper and magazine. It is also assumed that they are exposed to mass media programmes on family planning. There is also an assumption that the media education campaign has very high research objectives of researching all it target audience.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS CONCEPTUAL 1) MEDIA: It is the mean of communication with target number people especially, television, radio, newspaper, it is also can defined as a channel which information are disseminated to the public and reach target audience. 2) MEDIA STRATEGIES: these are the blue print designed by the media for achieving a particular purpose. 3) FAMILY PLANNING: It is a process of planning the number of children, intervals between birth in the family by using birth control. 4) FAMILY: It is a group consisting of one or two parents and their children.
1.10 OPERATIONAL AND THEORETICAL FRMEWORK 1) MEDIA: This is channel used in the research in all form of mass information dissemination, radio, TV, newspaper- applied by the media to attract their target audience. 2) MEDIA STRATGIES: As used in this research, it means the various technique applied by the media to attract their target audience. 3) FAMILY PLANNING: As used in this research, at is a means by which couples space and control the number of children, they can adequately cater for. 4) FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMMERS: In this research work, it means those programmes of FRCN, ESBS, NTA- used by families to achieve family planning objective. 5) FAMILY: As used this work, it means, a primary social group consisting of inter-parents and their offspring