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PROJECT TOPIC: DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM PACKAGING AND STORAGE PROPERTIES OF PACKAGED GARRI.

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ABSTRACT

Samples of white and yellow garri were collected at a week interval. From umunya in oyi local government Area, Anambra state. The purchased garri with initial moisture of 9.3% for white garri and 8.65 yellow garri. The samples of white and yellow garri was aseptically weighted (2kg) into polythene bags, plastic bucket and sack bag. The packs were labeled and kept at ambient temperature of (30.0=2c) for 14day. The change in the sample moisture content, change in PH biochemist

The result revealed that the avenged moisture content of yellow garri package in he yellow garri packaged in polynthene bag (9.3%) and sack bag (8.2%) and also the white garri package in plastic bucket has lower moisture content (8.6%) polythene the moisture content and mould content were observed to increase with the period of storage. While the nutritional content and PH were reduced. Changes in the various sensory quality attributes such as colour, aroma texture and moldiness at the end o the storages four fungi species (Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigated and the Rlizopus stolonifer) were isolated during the storage period in all the packaging materials the total viable fungal count was in the oder sack bags > polythene bags> plastic buckets. On the whole aim tight plastic buckets were observed and recommendation to be the best packing material for garri for a long period of time in this study

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE ……………………………..i

Certification page………………………………ii

Dedication………………………………………….iii

Acknowledgement……………………………………iv

Abstract………………………………………………..v

Table of contents…………………………………vi

List of table ……………………………………….viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction…………………………………

1.2 Objectives of study……………………………..13

1.3 Notification for the storage why is the study nccrneay.whe do the study hope active……..13

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review …………………………………………..14

2.1 consumption of garri……………………………………16

2.3 processing of garri…………………………………………17

2.4 grating………………………………………………………….17

2.5 peeling………………………………………………………..1

2.6 fermentation and dilating ………………………………….20

234 improved on small commercial method ………….21

2.35 sieving……………………………………………………..21

Storage of processed garri ……………………………….. 29

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 material and methods

3.1 sample survey and collection

3.1 sample survey and collection …………………31

3.2 2 experimental procedure…………………23

3.2.3 Biochemical analysis ………………………..33

3.234 sensory quality assessment……………..34

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 result and discussion ………………………41

4.2 economic importance of garri………………..43

4.3 market opportunities for garri production in Africa…42

4.5 success tips for aspiring garri producer………………45

4.6 types of garri…………………………………………………47

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS……50

5.1 CONCLUSION……………………………………….50

Reference ……………………………….. 54

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Garri: (yellow or white) a roasted gramular hydroscopic starchy food product, produced from cassava (manihot esculent a Grantz) is the most popular from in which cassava is consumed in the West Africa sub region. It is consumed by several million of people regardless of ethnicity and socio economic class, making it the commonest meal amongst the rich and poor. Garri available in the market can be consumed directly without further processing in the dry form with peanut, coconut, smoked fish soaked in water (some times with milk and beverage) of processed minimally using boiled water to form stiff paste popularly called “eba” and eaten with various types of African soups.

Cassava for garri production is harvested manually in the farm with the aid of a cutlass, hoe and flat iron sheet (digger) which occasionally inflicts various degrees of injuries on the root tubers. After harvesting, the root tubers are halved to the market where they are heaped in 20s40s, 50s or for sales under humid and warm topical conditions. These practices predispose the root tubers to contamination and infestation by various groups of microorganisms (especially moulds) mites and insects which potentiate biodeteraration.

Following processing, garri is spread on the bare floor or on a mat to allow cooling before final sieving and packaging for marketing in the open market; garri is displayed in open basins, bowls, bags and mats. These practices potentiate contamination by various group of micro organism and may predispose public health harzard. Various groups of moulds have reports to be associated with garri during storage and distribution. Moulds if present can grow and affect the nutritional and sensory properties of garri and species of oxygenic may produce my cotoscias Aflatoscia B,B2 G1 G2 are the they are produced by ubiqution fungal general and neurological association of these toxurs reinforce the need for continuo’s and regular search for their presence in foods

Numerous processing methods have been devised including gaited roots, fermenting peeled followed by roasting to reduce the toxicity and at the sine time convent the highly perishes fresh root of cassava into stable products. Garri is processed by fermenting peel and grated roots followed by dewatering sieving and frying. Frying the garri at high temperature which would have killed all micro- organisms but after preparation how eve other fungal spoilage. Garri is the most popular for in when of cyanogens (a colourless, poisons’, flammable, water- soluble gars (2N2having an almandine) odour used chiefly in Organ synthesis)

In the cassava variety used for processing garri in Nigeria. When not properly processed makes the products unsafe for consumption the processing of cassava into garri is one of the major cottage industries in umunya.

Garri, which is the a by- product of cassava is rich in carbohydrate, manly starch and is a major source of energy. With the exception of sugar cane garri is the highest source of carbohydrate.

The approximate and physical properties of garri is a function of the cassavas variety, age of cassava time, of harvesting, processing methods, packaging method, storage conditional and duration of storage (oduroetal, 2000, chuzel and zakhua 1991).

Adejumo and Rayi (2010) carried out an appraisal of garri packaging method in Ogbomosho, Nigeria. The objectives of the work were to appraise the various packaging material used for garri and to suggest, safe, and affordable packaging material for garri packaging. This is with a view of reducing losses during storage and for proper planning of marketing strategies in terms of appropriated product packaging the result should that the packaging material used for garri packaging. The result showed that the packaging material used for garri packaging are all improvised material not specifically made for garri packaging. The loss of garri during storage was assessed or the type of storage material used. Storage condition, star age duration and the were based on change in colour, odour and taste which was a result of poor keeping quality due to the moisture uptake during merchandising. The effect of moisture content and storage conditions on the storability of garri was investigated by Amadi and Adebola (2008) yellow & white garri sample were obtained and storage under the same conditions using polythene bags, sack bags and plastic buckets

1.2 OBJECTIVE

The main of aim the study

1. the main objective of this research is to determine the

2. optimum packaging and storage properties for packaged

3. garri

4. to determine the moisture content and PH of the garri using different packaging method

1.3 INSTIFICATION FOR THE STORAGE WHY IS THE STUDY NCCRNEAY.WHE DO THE STUDY HOPE ACTIVE

After this research, the best packing material will be noted so as to avoid or retard the actions of micro- organisms in the packaging of garri.

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