CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Research Methodology 3.1 Study Area This study will be carried out in Delta State. The state is bless with fertile soil and favourable climate which make it an important producer of food and cash crops. Delta state is an oil production state of Nigeria situated in the region known as the Niger Delta, south -south geopolitical zone with a population of 4,098,291 (Federal Republic of Nigeria official gazette, 2007). The state presented covers a landmass of about 18,050km of which more than 60% is land. The state has approximately between longitude 50.00 and 60.45 east and latitude 50.00 and 60.30 North. It is bounded in the north by Edo state, the east by Anambra State, South-East by Bayelsa. The state has a wide coated belt inter-lace with rivulets, which form part of the Niger Delta. Delta state was curved out of the former Bendel state on August 27th 1991. It consists of twenty-five (25) local government areas groups into three agricultural zones which are; The Delta North, Delta South and Delta Central. The Delta North (Delta Ibo) comprises of Aniocha, Ika, Oshimili, Ukwani, Ndokwa region while Delta South and Delta central are made up of Urhobo, Ijaw, Isoko and Itsekiri. The state enjoys tropical climate with two district seasons. These are the rainy season (April-October) and the dry season (November - March). The rainfall is heaviest in July. The temperature ranges between 200C and 340C with annual rainfall in the coastal areas is about 2557mm and 1905mm in the North.
The natural vegetation of the state varies from the mangrove swamps along the coast to every green forest in the fresh water zone and derived savannah in the north. Farming and fishing are the main occupation of the indigenes of the state major food crops and cash crops produce in the state include yam, maize, cassava, plantain, vegetables e.g (green, pumpkin, bitter leaf, saint leaf, water leaf, etc) fruits e.g (orange, banana, mangoes pineapple, pawpaw, guava etc) rubber, oil palm etc. They also engage in livestock farming such as pigs, goats, fisheries, poultry bird etc.