This study investigated the proximate composition of cashew nut. The cashew seeds were harvested and the shell removed with a knife. The nut was evaluated for its physiochemical characteristics (proximate). The proximate composition in (%) was as follows: moisture (6.00%), Ash (3.00%), crude fibre (0.16%), crude fat (33.4%), protein (8.87%), carbohydrate (48.57%) by difference. It is obvious from the result that cashew nut is a good source of minerals protein and fat it is adviceable that people should take it as food supplement.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Aim and objective 4
1.2 Statement of study 4
1.3 Limitation of study 4
1.4 Significant of study 5
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Brief history of cashew 6
2.2 Nutritive value/composition 8
2.2.1 Protein contents 10
2.2.2 Carbohydrate content 12
2.2.3 Fatty acid composition 12
2.2.4 Vitamin content 15
2.2.5 Vitamin d traces 16
2.2.6 Mineral content 17
2.3 Photochemical analysis of cashew nut 19
2.3.1 Test for tannins 21
2.3.2 Test for saponnins 21
2.3.3 Test for flavonoids 21
2.3.4 Test for alkaloids 21
2.4 Medical values of cashew nut 22
2.4.1 Diabetes 22
2.4.2 Gallstones 23
2.4.3 Dental health 23
2.4.4 Magnesium 24
2.4.5 Cardiovascular and circulatory health 24
2.5 industrial application of cashew nut 24
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 27
3.1 Materials 27
3.1.1 Equipment/apparatus used for this study are:27
3.1.2 Chemicals, solvents and reagents 28
3.2 Method 29
3.2.1Moisture content 29
3.2.2Ash content 30
3.2.3Crude fibre 31
3.2.4Protein content 33
3.2.5Fat content (lipid - fat and oil) 35
4.0 RESULTS 37
5.0 Discussion, conclusion, and recommendation 38
5.1 Discussion 38
5.2 Conclusion 39
5.3 Recommendation 40
The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) produces nuts, the kernels of which have increased considerably in economic importance over the past few decades. Indigenous to Brazil, the cashew was taken to West Africa, East Africa and India by the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was noticed that the tree grew well on poor sandy soils along the coastal belt and was used by the portages in Africa as an anti-soil erosion measure. The tree prospered and spread naturally, particularly in East Africa and India and the progeny of these wild cashew has formed the basic of the raw material for the cashew industry. Though the plant was primarily intended for checking soil erosion, it is now mainly grown for its commercially important kernel and shell oil (Aiyadurai, 1963).
After the war in 1945, world production and consumption of cashew nut increased sharply and it soon became the world’s most important desert nut after almonds. World consumption of cashew nuts has been increasing steadily from 125,000 tons in 1955 to 1,000,000 tons in 1995 and is estimated to be around 1,260,000 tons by the year 2005 (Ohler, 1979). The production of cashew nuts has also kept pace with demand in Europe and Africa and the increase in production has been achieved mainly through extension of the area under the crop. Production of cashew nut in India, however, is far short of the capacity of the existing processing industries and consequently, the cashew industry in India has been stagnant for the past two decades. To increase yields, improved planting material and better crop management practices will have to be given some attention (Russel, 1979).
Others countries in South East Asia and the pacific region including many island in Indonesia where the cashew nut as well as the cashew apple are appreciated. In Malaysia where its suitability for cultivation has been shown and the Philippines where its economic potential has been shown and the philippines where its economic potential has yet to be exploited are some of the new areas with future potential although labour requirements seem to be prohibitive, especially in Australia where conditions also appear suitable for its cultivation.
Trends in production of cashew are also related to consumption and these in turn will depend on the world economic situation. With the increase in the standard of living in developing countries, a large consumer market is developing, especially in cashew producing countries (Ohler, 1979). There is also the need to explore the possibility of wider dietary utilization of the oil obtained from the shell during processing of raw nuts, which is also a potential exportable production.
1.5 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
To determine the proximate analysis of cashew nut
1.6 STATEMENT OF STUDY
Cashew nut is an important fruit which cures various diseases and add nutritive value in human diet. when carrying the practical in the laboratory the cashew nut should be properly analysed so as to obtain a maximum percentage (%) needed in human diet and for the proper growth of the body.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The determination of the proximate analysis of cashew nut in the chemistry laboratory was limited to various percentage composition due to its nutritive value and medicinal important.
1.8 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
The cashew nut is important in human diet because it contains a lot of nutrient which is good to the body and it cures many diseases in the human body.