Project Body:



1.1 Background of the study

Arthropod species occur from below the soil surface to the tree canopy. However, only a small fraction are observed on a frequent basis because many are microscopic or hidden below ground or plant tissue. Very few species are classified as pest. Whether they feed on plants or plant produce invade our homes, inflict painful bites or stings. Infect most insects and other arthropods are beneficial and serve a variety of important functions in the garden. The abundance of beneficial insects especially predators is often limited in urban landscapes because these environments typically are characterized by disturbance. Disturbance factors include use of pesticides and other chemicals, air pollution and wind-borne dust, all of which may increase mortality of beneficial arthropods. Residential landscapes often lack adequate amounts of essential resources such as food, nesting sites and shelter than enhance reproduction and survival of natural enemies. Some common strategies are employed to conserve them in residential landscapes and these strategies may help reduce insecticide use and improve plant health by enhancing natural control of arthropod pests.

Because many arthropod pests are exotic the aim of classical biological control is to reduce pest numbers by reuniting old enemies through importation of predators from the area of insect pest origin. Lady beetles, green lace wings and spiders are familiar examples of predator arthropods inhibiting residential landscapes and gardens. In general, predators are larger than their prey, consume many prey items during their life time and feed on a broad range of species immature and/or adults may be predatory and often do not leave behind any evidence of attack. However, these arthropod predators often help to keep aphids, spider mites, caterpillars and other insect pests under control.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Insects came on this earth about 250 million years ago, whereas human beings appear only one million years back, so in the real sense, human beings are competitors of insects and not the reverse (Parabhoi, Sahu, & Kumari, 2017). But as the human being sits at the top of the evolutionary ladder, his life is effectively superior to that of any other organism, and in that sense, the insects become competitors. A pest is an organism whose activity causes it to be inimical to the welfare of humans. Of the approximate total of 8 million insects, roughly 2% constitute the pests, is the remainder being either useful or harmless (Parabhoi, Sahu, & Kumari, 2017). But these 2% insects are responsible for a crop loss of 10-15%. World food and fiber losses caused by pests (principally insect pathogens and weeds) are estimated to be about 40% of which 15% are attributable to insects and mites.(Parabhoi, Sahu, & Kumari, 2017).

Disclaimer: Using this Service/Resources: You are allowed to use the original model papers you will receive in the following ways:
  1. 1. This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research work
  2. 2. As a source for additional understanding of the subject.
  3. 3. As a source for ideas for your own research work (if properly referenced).
  4. 4. For PROPER paraphrasing (see your university definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase)
  5. 5. Direct citing (if referenced properly)
  6. Thank you so much for your respect to the authors copyright.

Useful Links:

Related Projects