Soil formation overlandscape along with management led to soil changes (e.g increased erosion, tillage, topography, lime, fertilization and weathering) result in soil variation within crop fields that affects the productivity of the soil. A soil characteristic often causing variability in crop production and conductivity is soil water storage for plant growth. Soil water storage is factor of determine many measurable properties including water infiltration rate, soil texture, structure, topography, soil resistivity, soil conductivity, soil organic matter and surface residue. Some of these properties physically affect crop root growth..
Nowadays, apparent electrical conductivity of the soil has been identified as an inevitable factor plant growth , which implies it may have a positive effect or negative effect on plant growth as this had been identified and affirmed by Rhoades and George E. Brown, in their journal.
Apparent electrical conductivity EC if the soil can be estimated using two methods, these methods is traditional mention and modern method. The traditional method of analyzing the EC of the soil is through the use or adopting of sampling method, where by soil samples are obtained, air-fired in the laboratory, distilled with distilled water and then test for, using the local meter. But at this twenty-first century, where technology is improving to the apex the spatial measure of profile EC has been adopted. It is carried either by soil mapping or on a regular grid. Surface soil organic matter content determined from spatially referenced sample has sometimes been used to explain variability in crop growth and height (Mallarino et al 1996; Buciene and Svedas, 1997; Mullar and Bhatti 1997). Variation in crop yield has been correlated to surface soil texture(MC Bratney and Pringle 1997).
In expensive and accurate method for measuring within field soil productivity variation would greatly improve site specific crop management. Spatial measurement of profile EC has been reported to have potential for predicting crop production. Variation caused by soil differences (Jaynes et al 1995). Rapid spatial measurement of soil EC has been accomplished using mobile EM induction sensor (MC Neil 1992). Soil EC measurement can be used on some soil as surrogate measure of more costly soil chemical and physical measurement.