1.2 Statement of the Problem.Whenever there is an oil spill on agricultural and natural land (hard and water) spreading immediately takes place. The gaseous and liquid components evaporate, some get dissolved in water and even oxidized and some undergo changes and eventually sink to the bottom by gravitational action.The soil is then contaminated with grass effect upon the terrestrial life. As the evaporation of the volatile lower molecular weight component affect aerial life, so that dissolution of the less volatile component with the resultant effect on aquatic life (atlas 2001).Once oil is released on water, the process of spreading takes place immediately the process stand to be the most significant. Some forces that influence the lateral spreading of oil even on calm water include;(a) Gravitation force, which brings about decreasing film thickness(b) Surface tension and inertia force, the force of gravity is found to be proportional to the film thickness.The causes of oil spillage are:Leakage from oil pipelines and flow lines, oil tank over flow, blow out of oil wells, sabotage by agencies, pipeline Vandalization, Lack of maintenance of oil pipelines. The research questions that now arise are:What cause(s) oil spillage on farmlands?How do farmers perceive or view oil spillage on their lands? Do they see it as having a disastrous effect on the agro-ecology? Is soil deterioration caused by oil spill attributable to unemployment and improper living condition?What are the agricultural or other related activities oil spillage could have effect on?1.3 Objective of the studyThe broad objective of the study is to examine the effects of oil spillage and natural environment of farmers in the study are. -The specific Objectives are:
1.4 Justification of the studyThis study has attempted to assess and evaluate the significance of the impacts generated by oil spill incidents. A thorough environmental impact assessment prior to oil exploitation and exploration in the rich regions. To stress the establishing of regional spill respond centre along coast line or in oil producing area and use the data collected and measures, that will help in managing oil spill problem in Nigeria and the study area:It helps to assure that communities can live safely with pipelines, by developing the technologies that detect or monitor the main causes of pipelines failures, developing a standard for the content and distribution of public education programmes of operators to enhance analysis of the risks that pipeline pose to the people and environment through information system improvements.Enhancing readiness of both pipeline operators and local communities to recognize and mount effective and timely responses to pipeline accidents. To know the development measures and regulatory standards for leak detection technology and of related best practices and to study the preventive measures in general which is better than cure.This study will be useful for every individual, organization and those communities that are liable to frequent oil spill and other related environmental pollution posed by oil spills to the natural environment, and will help greatly in alleviating the problem.Other disciplines that may find this study useful or that will use the study are;The researchers, Environmentalist, Agriculturalist, fertilizer institutions, the oil producing states, the communities prone to frequent oil spill and every one aspiring to build a wealth of knowledge of environmental consequences ‘or either for examination purpose or other professional need.