1.1 Background of the Study
The autism spectrum is a range of neurodevelopmental conditions generally characterized by difficulties in social interactions and communication, repetitive behaviors, intense interests, and unusual responses to sensory stimuli. It is commonly referred to as autism or, in the context of a professional diagnosis, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Bonati, Cartabia and Clavenna, 2022). A spectrum disorder is one that can manifest very differently from person to person: any given person with the disorder is likely to show some but not all of the characteristics associated with it, and may show them to very different degrees. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain. People with ASD often have problems with social communication and interaction, and restricted or repetitive behaviors or interests.