1.0 Introduction 1.1.Background of the Study
Floods are environmental hazards of meteorological phenomena, but very often induced by man’s improper utilization or abuse of the physical environment. Flooding can be defined as an overflow that comes from a river or other body of water and causes or threatens damage. (Adebayo and Jegede, 2010). Floods are among the most dramatic forms of interaction between man and his environment. They occur both in the developed or developing world and are always associated with heavy loses of lives and properties, misery, hardship, diseases, and at times, famine.
Floods have benefits but also cause multiple problems. Floods occur world-wide, often after heavy rain in areas. Once the flood water clear away, it leaves behind a variety of different effects on the land, animals and people. While many people view flooding as having a solely negative effect, positive things can also result in aftermath of a flood. Flooding causes structural and environmental damage to landscape. Floods erode soil, often on a large scale bases. This displacement of soil leads to the weakening of structures like houses and bridges. Ebisemiju (1993), opines that the most significant impact of flooding arises from urbanization, because it involves deforestation, land-use changes, temperature modification of soil physical properties and structures and the exposure of bare soil surfaces especially of construction sites all of which bring about changes in the morphological and hydrological state of water.