CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Although there is general agreement among psychologists that man experience a variety of needs, there is considerable disagreement as to what these needs are and their relative importance. There have been a number of attempts to present models of motivation which list a specific number of motivating needs, with the implication that these lists are all-inclusive and represent the total picture of needs, unfortunately, each of these models has weaknesses and gap and we are still without a general theory of motivation. All organization are concerned with what should be alone to achieve sustained high level of performance through people. Consequently the subject of adequate motivation of workers as derived from the so many attempts made by management practitioner is to look for the best way to manage so as to accomplish an objective or mission with the least inputs of material and human resources available.
A lot of theoretical concept principles and techniques of management have evolved in response to these challenges. In general management authors have tended to view motivation as a key component of the managerial function of leading or directing. However, leading or leadership style, although animportant factor in determining the attitude of employers towards assigned job responsibilities is not the only determinant other managerial function such as planning, controlling, staffing and organization also playa role. In any serious and competitive society workers are one of the tools for economics progress. Their welfare is taken into serious consideration because without a dedicated workforce an organization crumbles. The nations (Nigerian) reward system is probably the poorest in the entire global were an average take home of the worker is put at N35 per month. Workers are used and abused, harassed, treated, offended and discarded without any appreciation for their contribution to their organization and to the society at large. It is therefore apparent that the issue of adequate motivation of worker has relevance in managerial function and activities that are aimed at directing the productive effort of the worker force toward achieving organizational objectives. Knotz et at (1980) holds that management strive to create and maintain an environment that is conducive to the performance of individual who are working together in groups towards the accomplishment of pre- selected objectives workers in organization work in-progress and group dynamics often result in the conflict of goals between individuals and other groups. Conversely motivation according to strauss and sayles, can be provided for workers, using the following methods
(1) The traditional approach to motivate which is often referred to as the economic man model assumes the following.
(a) The only reason why people work: is to earn money and that they will work only if driven to it by fear of losing their job.
(b) Since no one like to work, people will try to get away with doing as little as they can, management must tell every worker exactly what to do, spell out every rule and give the worker the narrowest possible range for description
(2) The human relation approach: this emphasizes motivation basically through satisfying the workers security and benefits that provide some protection against illness old age and unemployment. The social need for belonging should be met by various recreational activities and be the development of strong cohesive work groups. (3) Approach to motivation is the implicit bargaining when using this approach, management encourages workers to do a reasonable amount of work by agreeing to be more flexible in terms of supervision. These bargaining are usually a matter of implicit unspoken understanding. (4) The fourth approach to motivation is around competition for the pay increases and promotion that accompany outstanding work. This is important because it helps the worker to satisfy various forms of need satisfaction, some of these include a sense of accomplishment, and added social prestige. (5) The last of the approaches under consideration is internalized motivation this deals with providing opportunities for need satisfaction through doing the job itself. This approach uses Herzberge’s motivators, which means that management should create conditions under which workers will willingly and voluntarily work towards organization objective because they enjoy the work. Economic motivation is de-emphasized and more stress is put on age mode. These methods according to status and styles can either be used alone or in combination. It is further stated that usually most manager uses a combination of all five methods. It is important to consider the issue of motivation in organization because of the interleave desire of people to pursue their own personal aspirations while the organizational objective are being met. Certain problems of inadequate motivation however do arise as it concerns certain individual who come into the work situation with difference in expectation, behaviour and outlook. These problems of individual motivation inadequately may be divided into two categories?