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1.1 Background to the study

According to Thungu (2010), education is the transmission of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values.   The acquired knowledge, skills, attitudes and values should enable the individual to develop into a good member of society.  Education should therefore bring about some changes that are acceptable to society.  Education transmits what is worthwhile in a morally acceptable manner (Ngaroga, 2006).  Also Ngaroga in his book “Education for Primary Teacher Education” wrote that education reflects the values and standards of a society and its educators.  Education should therefore be worthwhile in terms of the transmitter, content and methods which help the child to relate to his or her society. Early childhood is the period from birth to eight years of age.  According to Wanjohi (2010), the concept of Early Childhood Development and Education takes into account the child in the mother’s womb soon after conception, through high-school  and the transition up to eight years.  During the early childhood the child is educated or enlightened so as to cope with life as he or she transits from one stage to the other. Educationally, religion initiates the students into a search for truth, appreciate oneself and become aware of the implications of their actions on others (Ashton, 2000).

According to Thungu (2010), moral and theological education in Nigeria was formally incorporated into the curriculum way back in 1924 as a recommendation of the Phelps – Stokes commission.  Upon establishing formal education, the missionary groups took up the responsibilities of not only starting schools but also developing of curriculum for education.  The missionaries trained and employed their own teachers, formulated their own content, learning resources and teaching methodologies. Consequently, Theological education operated in different names like

Catechism, Bible Knowledge, Religious Knowledge, Scripture, Bible Study and Christianity (Shiundu and Omulando, 1992).  In 1952, the Binns Commission was appointed to make recommendations.  Religion was recommended to continue being the basis for African education.  Further, it was recommended that there be scrapping of the examination oriented curriculum to reduce   dropouts and also to reduce the number of Africans who would proceed for clerical jobs. In 1976, the Gachathi report was required to formulate a specific programme for realizing the educational objectives and policies. Among the recommendations that were made, the teaching of social education and ethics was to be integrated into Theological education.  This gave teaching of Theological education an advantage of being taught in schools(Thungu, 2010). According to Thungu (2010), at independence, Nigeria education system reviewed Theological education to make it more relevant to the needs of students and society.  The Ominde Commission of 1964 recommended that Theological education should continue to be part of the school curriculum.  The Republic of Nigeria Publication (1980) which was reviewed in the year 2012 required the churches to transfer their schools to the government. Churches consequently assumed the role of sponsorship so as to maintain their religious traditions.

According to Nigeria Institute of Education (2006), Theological education 

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