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PROJECT TOPIC: METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AQUEOUS OF ENANTIA CHLORANTHA

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Natural products have been, and have remained the cornerstone of health care. Present estimates show that 80% of the world’s population still rely on traditional medicine for their health care needs (Farnsworth et al. 1985).

           It is estimated that there are between 200 000 and 700 000 species of tropical flowering plants that have medicinal properties, this has made traditional medicine relatively cheaper than modern medicine. Over the years there have been alarming reports of multiple drug resistant in medically important strains of bacteria and fungi (Gill, 1992). The persistent increase in antibiotic resistant strains of organisms has led to development of more potent synthetic antibiotics such as the 3rd and 4th generations of cephalosporins by pharmaceutical companies. These new antibiotics are scarce, costly and not affordable particularly in the developing countries and therefore make compliance difficult. There is therefore need for continuous search for new effective and affordable antimicrobial drugs. Local medicinal plants provide a source of new possible antimicrobial drugs (Iwu, 1993). Among plants believed traditionally to have therapeutic effect but which receives little or less scientific research is Enantia chlorantha. Traditionally the bark extract is applied to ulcers and leprous spots for quick healing, decoction is used for washing wounds, bark sap is taken as decoction against diarrhea (Nostro et al. 2000).

Much attention has been recently directed towards plant extracts and biologically active compounds isolated from plants. The use of medicinal plants play a vital role in combating diseases in developing parts of the world where poverty and drug resistance limit access to, and effectiveness of synthetic drugs for chemotherapy. This study is necessary; coming on the heels of an explosion of trado-medicine in Nigeria, as plant-based drugs are seen marketed and sold on the street, offices and even on radio and television. With strong claims being made by trado-medical practitioners about these plants treating a wide array of diseases. Worthy of note is the large number of people who patronize the practitioner without concern to the potency and safety of the said plant product.

The advantages of herbal medicine over orthodox drugs include


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