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PROJECT TOPIC: PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

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ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs.Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of6Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page………………………………………………………………… iCertification……………………………………………………………. iiDedication………………………………………………………………. iiiAcknowledgement…………………………………………………. ivAbstract……………………………………………………………….... vTable of Content…………………………………………………… viCHAPTER ONE1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………… 171.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant..……………………. 41.3 Research aim and objectives……………………... 7CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.0 Definition of Inflammation…………………….. 82.1 Characteristics of Inflammation………………. 82.2 Classes of Inflammation………………………… 92.3 Types of Inflammation……………………………. 102.4 Chemical mediators of Inflammation………… 132.4.0 Properties of Mediators……………………….. 1682.4.1 Histamine………………………………………… 182.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy tryptamine)………… 212.4.3 Cytokines………………………………………………….. 242.4.4 Arachidonic acid ……………………………………… 302.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)……………… 342.4.6 Free Radicals……………………………………. 362.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)……………………………… 372.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived free radicals………………. 402.4.7.0 Complement system…………………………. 4192.4.7.1 The clotting system/Coagulation system. 452.4.7.2 The Kinin System……………………………. 482.4.7.3 The fibrinolytic system……………………… 502.5.0 Anti-Inflammatory agents………………….. 532.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) 532.5.1.0 Mechanism of Action of NSAIDS…………. 552.5.2 Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs……….. 58CHAPTER THREEMATERIAL AND METHODS3.1 Materials……………………………………………… 60103.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus used…………………… 603.1.2 Chemical, Solvents and Reagents…………….. 613.1.3 Animals………………………………………………….. 623.2 Methodology………………………………………………. 633.2.1 Collection and preparation of Plant Materials….. 633.2.2 Extraction………………………………………………... 633.3 Fractionation……………………………………………… 643.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography………………………. 643.4. Identification of Phytochemical groupsin the extract……………………………………………. 653.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical11analysis……………………………………………………. 653.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysisof the Extract……………………………………………. 663.5 Thin Layer Chromatography………………………… 713.6 Anti-inflammatory activity test. …………………… 72CHAPTER FOURResult……………………………………………………………. 75CHAPTER FIVEDiscussion……………………………………………………… 79Conclusion……………………………………………………… 81References………………………………………………………. 82Appendixes……………………………………………… 8712

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AIM AND OBJECTIVES

Inflammation is one of body’s natural ways of protecting itself. It is also an essential reaction of the body to infection. Too little of an inflammatory response, and the body is unable to repel microbial invasions or heal injuries. Too much of an inflammatory response, and the immune system begins attacking the body’s own organs eventually leading to chronic disease (Sears, 2000).Anti-Inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. There are obvious clinical markers of inflammation which include pain, redness, fever, swelling and loss of function (Pai et al. 2004). However if inflammation is allowed to continue unchecked it may results in neurodegenerative disease or cancer (Pai et al. 2004). A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids

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