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PROJECT TOPIC: PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

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ABSTRACT    Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs. Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.   TABLE OF CONTENT Title page------------------------- i Certification-----------------ii Dedication------------------------.iii Acknowledgement-------------------.iv Abstract--------------------------v Table of Content--------------------vi CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction -------------------1 1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant---------.4 1.3 Research aim and objectives---------.7 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Definition of Inflammation---------8 2.1 Characteristics of Inflammation------.8 2.2 Classes of Inflammation----------9 2.3 Types of Inflammation-----------.10 2.4 Chemical mediators of Inflammation----13 2.4.0 Properties of Mediators----------16 2.4.1 Histamine---------------- 18 2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy tryptamine)---- 21 2.4.3 Cytokines-------------------- 24 2.4.4 Arachidonic acid --------------- 30 2.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)------ 34 2.4.6 Free Radicals--------------.36 2.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)------------ 37 2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived free radicals------. 40 2.4.7.0 Complement system----------. 41 2.4.7.1 The clotting system/Coagulation system. 45 2.4.7.2 The Kinin System-----------. 48 2.4.7.3 The fibrinolytic system--------- 50 2.5.0 Anti-Inflammatory agents--------53 2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) 53 2.5.1.0 Mechanism of Action of NSAIDS----.55 2.5.2 Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs----58 CHAPTER THREE MATERIAL AND METHODS 3.1 Materials------------------ 60 3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus used-------- 60 3.1.2 Chemical, Solvents and Reagents------61 3.1.3 Animals--------------------62 3.2 Methodology------------------.63 3.2.1 Collection and preparation of Plant Materials--63 3.2.2 Extraction-------------------.63 3.3 Fractionation------------------ 64 3.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography---------.64 3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups in the extract-----------------. 65 3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical analysis--------------------.65 3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the Extract-----------------.66 3.5 Thin Layer Chromatography---------- 71 3.6 Anti-inflammatory activity test. -------- 72 CHAPTER FOUR Result-----------------------.75 CHAPTER FIVE Discussion--------------------- 79 Conclusion--------------------- 81 References---------------------.82 Appendixes------------------87


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