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PROJECT TOPIC: PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS.

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ABSTRACT 

This work was carried out to investigate the effects of Burantashi extract on liver enzymes of albino male and female whistar rats. Burantashi is a popular seasoning agent to barbecued meat (suya) in Nigeria,mostly found in the northern part of the Nigeria. Liver Enzymes are those enzymes that plays important role in the liver both in function and regulation. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the consistent or recurrent inability of a man to attain or maintain penile erection, sufficient for sexual activity (2nd) International consultation on sexual Dysfunction Paris, June 28th July 1st, 2003). Following the discovery and introduction of Burantashi research on the mechanism underlying penile erection, has had an enormous boost and many preclinical and clinical papers have been published in the last five years on the peripheral regulation of, and the mediators involved in human penile erection. The most widely accepted risk factors for ED are discussed. The research is focused on human data and the safety and effectiveness of Burantasni Stem as a phosphodiesterase -5- Inhibitors (PDE-5) used to treat Erectile Dysfunctions.6LIST OF FIGURES1. Anatomy of the Penis2. The Penis Vacuum Device3. The Penis Prosthesis4. The Anterior view of the Human Liver5. The Interior view of the Human Liver6. The Superior View of the Human Liver7. Liver Lobules8. Chart Showing Blood and Bile Flow Through the Liver7LIST OF TABLES1. Extract Yield of Ethanol Extract and Aqueous Extract.2. Phytochemical Properties of Extract3. Effect of Extracts in Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transferase (SGOT) Activity of Whistar Rats4. Effect of Extract on Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) Activity of Whistar Rats5. Effect of Extracts On Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Activity of Whistar Rats6. Effect of Extracts on Plasma Glutathione S-Transferase Activity (iu/L) of Whistar Rats8TABLE OF CONTENTTitle Page iCertification iiDedication iiiAcknowledgement ivAbstract vList of Tables viList Figures viiTable of Content viiiCHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction 11.1 Physiology of Erection 11.2 Hormonal Involvement In Erection 21.3 Mechanism of Action of PDE. 5 Inhibition In erectile Dysfunction 31.4 Nitric Oxide Regulation of Penile Erection 61.5 Atieology of Erectile Dysfunction 81.6 Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Males 91.7 Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Females 101.8 Aim of Study 11CHAPTER TWO92.0 Literature Review 122.1 Literature Review on Male Erectile Dysfunction (ED) 122.1.1 Anatomy of the Penis 122.1.2 How Erection Occur in Males 132.1.3 How Erection is Sustained 132.1.4 Causes of Erectile Dysfunction in Males 142.1.5 Physical Causes of ED in Males 142.1.6 Psychological Causes of ED in Males 192.1.7 Diagnosis of Erectile Dysfunction 202.1.8 Patient History 202.1.9 Physical Examination 222.1.10 Laboratory test 222.1.11 Psychological Examination 232.1.12 Treatment of Males Impotence 232.2 Literature Review on Female Erectile Dysfunction 342.2.1 Anatomy of the Female External Genitalia 342.2.2 How Women Attain Clitoral Erection 362.2.3 Causes of ED in Females 362.2.4 Physical Causes of ED in Females 362.2.5 Psychological Causes of ED in Females 392.2.6 Diagnosis of Females Erectile Dysfunction 402.2.7 Treatment of Female Erectile Dysfunction 40102.3 Literature Review on Burantashi (Pausinystaliajohimbe) 412.3.1 Specie Identity 412.3.2 Taxonomy 412.3.3 History 422.3.4 Mechanism of Action 422.3.5 Botanic Description 432.3.6 Ecology and Distribution 442.3.7 Propagation and Management 442.3.8 Tree Management 452.3.9 Germplasm Management 452.3.10 Functional Uses 452.3.11 Medicinal Uses 462.3.12 Pests and Diseases 472.4 The Liver 472.4.1 Anatomy of the Liver 472.4.2 Histology 482.4.3 Structure of the Liver 502.4.4 Function of The Liver 542.4.5 Liver Infections/ Diseases 562.4.6 Liver Enzymes/ Functions 612.4.7 Alanine Transaminase (AIT) 622.4.8 Aspartate Transaminase (AST) 62112.4.9 Alkatine Phosphatase (AIP) 632.4.10 Total Bilirubin (TBIL) 632.4.11 Birect Bilirubin (Conjugated Bilirubin) 632.4.12 Gamma GlutamylTranspeptidase (GGT) 642.4.13 5’ Nucleotidase (5’ NTD) 642.4.14 Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) 642.5 Phytochemicals 652.5.1 Functions of Phytochemicals 65CHAPTER THREE3.0 Materials 713.1 Method 75CHAPTER FOUR4.0 Result 83CHAPTER FIVE5.0 Discussion and Conclusion 895.1 Discussion 895.2 Conclusion 89References 9012

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

PHYSIOLOGY OF ERECTION

Penile Erection involves an integration of complex physiological processes involving the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, hormonal and vascular systems. Any abnormality involving these systems whether from medications or disease has a significant impact on the ability to develop and sustain erection; ejaculate and experience orgasm. (Laumann et al., 1999).The physiological process of erection begins in the brain and involves the nervous and vascular system. The chemicals that initiate erection are neurotransmitters present in the brain. Any kind of stimulation physical or psychological, causes nerves to send message to the vascular system which result in significant blood flow to the penis. Two arteries in the penis supply blood to erectile tissues and the corpora cavernous which become engorged and expand as a result of increased blood flow and pressures. Because blood must stay in the penis to maintain rigidity. An erectile tissue is enclosed by tunicae, which is fibrous elastic sheathes cinch which prevents blood leaving he penis during13electron. When muscle in the penis contract to stop the inflow of blood and open out flow channels and an electron is reserved.

HORMONAL INVOLVEMENT IN ERECTIONï· Oestrogen/Progesterone: (These are female hormones that cause clitoralerection. If the body has two much oestrogen and or too little testost erone, she ca n get very wet but can not erect her clitoral and G-spot. ( Haimen et al., 2002). Estrogen tends to increase the size of the bread, labia minors (inner lips) and clitoral hood, but shrinks the glans clitoris into the clitoral hood making it invisible. It also increases the thickness of the vaginal lining making the G-spot inaccessible. The mechanism of the clitoral and G-spot erection is the same as that of the penis. It is driven by the parasympathetic sexual nerve (The neurotransmitter acetylcholine) through the neurotransmitter. Nitric oxide and the erection dilator cGMP, which is continuously powered by the burning of testosterone without a testosterone burst and burning. She cannot pop the glans Clitoris and G-spot out. If she is on birth control pills there is a chance that her body is over flooded by estrogens and low progesterone. Over loaded liver cannot produce sufficient essential enzymes to synthesize sufficient NO, cGMP and testosterone to support the clitoral and G-spot erection infact excessive estrogen or progesterone in the body will shrink the penis, clitoral and G-spot, but likely increase the breast size (under the excessive estrogen action).


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