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PROJECT TOPIC: THE OXIDATIVE STRESS STATUS OF RATS FED ON OIL BEAN SEED MEAL

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ABSTRACT

This study was on oxidative stress status of rat fed with Pentraclethra macrophylla, otherwise known as African oil bean seed oil in English or Ugba in Igbo. Sixteen male rats were distributed into four groups. 1 (control), then group 2, 3, and 4 as test groups. They were fed with their formulated meal (5%, 10%, 20% inclussions) for 28 days. Group 1 was the control and were fed with the normal feed, while group 2, 3 and 4 which were the test groups were fed with test feed formula.. The parameters determined were MDA concentrations and catalase activity. Serum MDA significantly increased (p<0.05) while the catalase activity significantly decreased (p<0.05). This finding may be clinically significant to individuals with predisposition to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other degenerative diseases.

TABLE OF CONTENTTitle page .......................................................................................................... iApproval page ................................................................................................... ii6Dedication ......................................................................................................... iiiAcknowledgment ............................................................................................. ivAbstract ............................................................................................................ vTable of content ................................................................................................ viChapter One1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................ 11.1 Aim and objective ...................................................................................... 2Chapter Two2.0 Literature Review ........................................................................................ 32.1 Classification of oil bean ........................................................................... 52.2 Composition of seed .................................................................................. 52.3 Fatty acid composition of African oil bean seed ....................................... 62.4 Pharmacological uses ................................................................................. 72.5 Anti nutrient in health ................................................................................ 92.6 Oil bean and humans .................................................................................. 122.6.1 Oil bean seed and animals ....................................................................... 142.7 Oxidative stress .......................................................................................... 162.7.1 Malondialdehyde ..................................................................................... 172.8 Catalase ...................................................................................................... 197Chapter Three3.0 Materials and methods ............................................................................... 213.1 Materials ..................................................................................................... 213.2 Collection and identification of plant materials ......................................... 213.3 Animals ...................................................................................................... 213.4 Preparation of oil bean seed meal for animal feeding ............................... 223.4 .1 Oil bean seed meal inclusion diet preparations ..................................... 223.4.2 Oil extraction ........................................................................................... 223.5 Formulation of oil bean seed meal diet ...................................................... 233.5.1 Oil bean seed based treatment diet (g/100g Diet) ................................... 233.5.2 Chemicals/Biochemicals ......................................................................... 233.6 Phytochemical screening ........................................................................... 243.6.1 Test for tannins ........................................................................................ 243.6.2 Test for alkaloids ..................................................................................... 253.6.3 Test for saponin ....................................................................................... 253.6.4 Test for flavonoids ................................................................................... 263.6.5 Determination of phenols ........................................................................ 273.7 Determination of fatty acid composition ................................................... 273.7.1 Determination of anthocyanin ................................................................ 283.8 Collection of blood sample ....................................................................... 2983.9 Test for malonaldelyde .............................................................................. 293.9.1 Catalase assay..........................................................................................30Chapter Four4.0 Result and discussion ................................................................................. 324.1 Figure i fatty acid composition of extracted oil of pentraclethra macrophylla .................... 324.2 Figure ii malondialdehyde concentration of test and control animal ...... 344.3 Figure iii catalase concentration of test and control animals .................... 35Chapter Five5.0 Discussion .................................................................................................. 365.1 Recommendations ...................................................................................... 38References ........................................................................................................ 39CHAPTER ONETHE OXIDATIVE STRESS STATUS OF RATS FED ON OIL BEANSEED MEAL9

1.0. INTRODUCTION

Ugba also called ukpaka is a popular food delicacy in Nigeria especially among Igbo ethnic group. It is rich in protein and is obtained by a solid state fermentation of the seed of African oil bean tree (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).The natural fermentation of the seed which at present is still done at the house-hold level, renders the production nutritious, palatable and non-toxic (Enujiugha, 2002).Its production, like many African fermented foods depends, entirely on mixed fermentation by microorganism from diverse source.Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth is a large woody plant abundant in the rain forest areas of west and central Africa. It’s origin in Nigeria is believed to be around 1937 (Ladipo, 1984); where it is found in the South Nigeria, (Mbajunwa et al., 1998).âUgbaâ Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth belongs to the Family Leguminosae and sub-family Microsoideae (Keay, 1989 and NFTA, 1995).Ugba seeds are irregular and oval; they are flat, black and hard pods. It is composed of oil, protein and small amounts of carbohydrate (Obeta, 1982).10

1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

(i) To determine the concentration of Malondialdehyde (MDA, which indicates the peroxidation status) and(ii) The activity of Catalase (a marker of antioxidant status) in the serum of rats fed graded doses of African oil bean seed meal.

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