This project was carried out to study the bird species abundance and diversity at the treasures of the universe, Sabo Kaduna Nigeria in order to generate a checklist that will form the baseline information of avifauna records for the treasures. Data was collected for a period of 15 weeks, from (July-September 2018). Line transect method was used in determining the abundance and diversity and also for generating the list of birds for the area. Seventy seven bird species (taxa) were identified which were comprised of a total of 6,926 individual bird, the most abundance species of bird was the village weaver (1582) individuals which made up of 23% of the bird population; that was followed by pia piac (1163) individuals having 17%. 12% of all the recorded bird was of laughing dove species with (853) individual, the bird species with least number of individuals was African cuckoo (1 individual) which correspondent to 0.014% of all the bird samples. Birds’ activity peaks within the hours of 6:30 – 9:30am. This study indicated that the Treasures of the Universe Resort is an ecologically rich habitat with relatively high variety of bird species.
Birds belong to the class aves and are among the earliest defined and readily recognized categories of animals, due to the presence of feather (Sethy et al, 2015). The members of this group of animals make up to over 10,000 species and 22,000 of species worldwide. This species were traditionally divided into 30 orders but more recent list (in part based on molecular studies) group birds into 23-40 orders (Clements, 2007). Africa alone harbors about 2500 bird species of 111 bird families, in which 20 families are endemic in Africa. The avifaunal population of Nigeria includes a total of 940 species of birds (Lepage, 2007).
Birds play important functional roles in many ecosystems (Ogada et al., 2008). Granivorous (seed & grain eating birds e.g game birds, finches) birds can decrease seed survival (Ogada et al., 2008), while insectivores (birds species which mainly feeds on insects, spiders and small invertebrates e,g warblers) can reduce the abundance of herbivorous arthropods and frugivorous birds (fruit eating birds species e.g bulbul, flowers peckers) can be important agent of seed dispersal (Ogada et al., 2008). Consequently, birds can influence the survival and the reproduction of herbaceous and woody plants both directly through seed predation and indirectly by reducing the abundance of herbivorous insect or by dispersing seeds to more favorable germination sites.
Birds communities have been studied fairly well both in moderate and tropical forest (Sethy et al, 2015). However, only a very little information is known about bird community composition and there dynamics. Understanding the diversity and structure of bird communities is essential to describe the importance of regional or local landscape for avian conservation. (Sethy et al, 2015) Determinations of bird’s population in different habitats are central to understanding the community structure and niche relationships, as well as intelligent management of populations. (Sethy et al, 2015) Furthermore, seasonal monitoring is equally significant to trace the movement of birds in such habitats (Sethyet al, 2015).
Bird communities have direct relation with the structure of habitat and are indicators of environmental changes. The focus of community ecology is the study of the grouping of species, their distribution and the interactions between them and the physical and biological factors of their environment. Birds are one of the best indicators of environmental qualities of any ecosystem.
Bird community valuation has become an essential tool in biodiversity (number and variety of species of plant & animal life within a region). Conservation (the act of preserving and protecting of natural resources) and for identifying convention effect in areas of high human stress
1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEAECH PROBLEM
The general loss and alteration of forests through human activities such as logging and agriculture represents major threats to tropical biodiversity (BirdLife International, 2013). Activities such as felling of trees and site constructions at the expense of forest flora can also alter bird species and distribution pattern (BirdLife International, 2013).
Benefit of determining the diversity and abundance of Bird in the treasure resort.
To study the abundance and diversity of bird species in Treasures of the Universe Resort
The Research was designed to determine:
· The bird species diversity and abundance in Treasures of the Universe Kaduna state and the environment.
· The effect of vegetation structure on birds abundance