CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections affecting humans today. The presence of bacteria in the urinary system results in serious infections that can cause kidney failure, and in some cases death Karkkainen, U. M., Kauppinen (1998). The first step in infection is the adhesion of bacteria to uroepithelium where bacterial cells can multiply and colonize different organs of the urinary system4. Conventional methods to treat UTIs rely on the use of antibiotics. However, many bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance Dyer, I. E., Sankary, (1994). The use of antibiotics to treat infections can also become a major environmental problem since the human body does not process these substances completely, and therefore they persist in wastewater.