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PROJECT TOPIC: BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF PACKAGED AND OTHER DRINKING WATER SOURCES IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                         INTRODUCTION

Water is a simple molecule, consisting of two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom with molecular formula H2O (Bassem, 2013). It is one of the most important chemical substances for the sustenance of life and is vital for all known forms of life on Earth; It constitutes about 75% of the Earth`s surface (UN, 2005; EL-Jakee et al., 2009; Hongyue et al., 2013). In terms of sheer volume, About 97.5% of all the water on Earth is salt water, only 2.5% of all the water on Earth is fresh water and 98.8% of that fresh water is frozen in Antarctica and Greenland icecaps or lies too deep underground to be accessible; only 1.2% of the Earth’s freshwater is available for withdrawal and human use (Shiklomanov, 2000; UN, 2005; Bassem, 2013). However, this is continually being polluted by various anthropogenic activities thereby further reducing the available freshwater for human use. The drinking water of most communities including Zaria in Nigeria is obtained from various sources: boreholes, rivers, streams, and well waters. Source water contamination poses a risk to public health and increases the cost of drinking water treatment.

The threats posed by deteriorating water quality caused by among other things, the contamination of potable water sources have led the public to seek for alternative potable water sources. Although access to safe and reliable sources of drinking water is a global challenge, it is particularly acute in developing countries, including Nigeria (Ivey et al., 2006).

The production, sale and consumption of plastic bagged drinking water has grown tremendously over the years in many developing countries such as Nigeria. The plastic bagged drinking water was introduced into the Nigerian market as a less expensive means of accessing drinking water than bottled water.


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