Eduproject.com.ng logo - APPROVED EDUCATION PROJECT TOPICS AND RESEARCH MATERIALS

PROJECT TOPIC: COMPONENT OF YIELD OF OKRA PLANT (ABELMESCUS ESCULENTUS) A CASE STUDY IN OVIA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Project Body:


ABSTRACT

The components of yield of okra fruits in terms of fruit length, weight, number seeds, number grooves and weight in Udoh and Okada markets in Ovia South West Local Government Area of Edo State investigated. The average length of okra fruits in location A and B in Udoh market were 5.62cm and 6.8cm while the average length of okra fruits in location A and B in Okada Market were 11.02cm and 10.32cm. The average number of grooves of okra fruit in location A and B in Udoh market were 6.8 and 7.8 while the average number of grooves of okra fruits in location A and B in Okada Market were 6.4 and 8.4. The average number seeds of okra fruits in location A and B in Udo market were  69.4 and 77.4 while the average number seeds of okra fruits in location A and B in Okada Market were 61.8 and 75.4. The average weight of okra fruits in Udoh and Okada markets were 14.12g and 13.66g. There was no much difference between the components of yield of okra fruits in different locations in Ovia South West Local Government Area because the plants were exposed to the same climatic environment, local varieties planted and local  propagation of okra plant without the use of fertilizers.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One    

Introduction

Background of the study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Research question

Scope of the study

Limitations of study

Definition of study

Chapter Two    

Literature Review

Chapter Three  

Materials and methods

Materials

Methods

Measurement of weight

Counting of seed number

Chapter Four    

Presentation of data and discussion

Chapter Five    

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Conclusion

Recommendations

Suggestions for further studies

REFERENCES    

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Okra (Abelmoschus esculenta) belong to the malvaceae family, believed to be originated from tropical Africa okra is found in its wild state in the alluvia banks of the Nile and Egyptian were the first to cultivate it in a basin in the Nile (12th century). It was propagated through North Africa to the Mediterranean, the Balkans and India. It arrived in the Americans at Brazil (1688), Guinea and at New Ocean before extending in the United States up to Philadelphia in 1981.

Okra apparently originated from geobotanist call the Abyssinian centre origin of cultivate plants an area that includes present day Ethiopia, the mountainous or Plateau portion of Eritrea, and the eastern higher pare of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The routes by which okra was taken from Ethiopia to North Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean Arabia and India. It has been commonly cultivated in Egypt for many hundreds of years no sign of it had ever been found in any of the ancient monuments. Since the Spanish moors and the Egyptians of the 12th and 13th centuries use an Arabic word for okra, it probably taken into Egypt by the Moslems from the East who conquered Egypt in the year 17th century, the plant was taken from Ethiopia to Arabic across the narrow red sea.

Okra fruit is a true fruit because it develops solely from the ovary and its does not involve other flora part. Okra fruit is a simple fruit that develop from a single flower with monocarpous or syncarpous pistil. Okra fruit is dry dehiscent fruit, the fruit can split to release their seed due to dehydration of the fruit wall. The name “Okra” most often use in the United State and the Philippines is of West African origin and is cognate with “Okuru” in Igbo language spoken in Nigeria. Okra is often known as “lady finger: outside of the United State. In Bantu language, okra is called “Kingambo” or a variant thereof and this is the origin of its name in Portuguese (quiabo). Spanish, Dutch and French and also of the name “gumbo” use in part of the United State and English speaking Caribbean for either the vegetable or stew base on it. In India and often in the United Kingdom it is called Hindu name “bhindi” or “bhendi” in South and South East Europe it is known as banya (banji).

Cultivation of okra starts from seed and it does not transplant well. The seed should be planted directly in the ground outside about 2 weeks after all danger of frost has passed. Here in South Central wisdonsin it means that it planted outside sometime between May 20th and May 30th. The basic rule is to keep plants separated from each other by about 15 inches plants in beds that are four feet wide by about twenty feet long. Make three rows, and plant seeds about 18 inches apart within each row. Okra seeds are relatively large and easy to handle. They also germinate well if the soil is warm enough. Plant the seeds about 18 inches apart within each row. Okra seeds are relatively large and easy to handle. They also germinate well if the soil is warm enough. Plant the seeds about half an inch deep, about three seeds at each spot. In most cases all three germinate. Okro needs warm weather to grow well. This means that in northern climates you may not have much of a crop some years. The main thing you can do to help is to keep the bed weed free and mulched as much as possible. Watering is only needed occasionally. Most varieties will start yielding about 60 days after planting. The flowers are large, pale yellow and fairly ornamental. Each flower blooms for only one day and eventually forms one okra pod. Pick the pods when they are approximately three (3) inches in length and picking the pods while wet may darken the skin, though the taste is not affected, typically it grows quickly, so you need to harvest every two days or so. The plants can eventually grow quite tall (5 feet or more), but will stop growing as soon as the temperature starts dropping down below 50 degrees.

IMPORTANCE OF OKRA PLANT

  1. Okra helps to stabilize blood sugar as it curbs the rate at which sugar is absorbed from the intestine tract.
  2. Okra mucilage not only binds cholesterol but bile acid consuming toxins dumped into it by the filtering liver.
  3. Okra helps to prevent and improve constipation due to the absorbing water and ensuring bulk in stools.
  4. Okra facilitates elimination more comfortable by its slippery characteristics many people abhor.  

HOW TO GROW OKRA

Okra, native to Africa and a beautiful relative of hibiscus, was brought to North America in the 1600s. this tropical plant quickly become popular in the deepSouth both as a side dish and as a thickening forgumbo and stews it can however, thrive in any climate where corn will grow. Depending on the cultivar, the large-flowered, fast-growing plants reach 2 to 6 feet tall. Varieties with colourful stems and leaves, such as “Burgundy”, make attractive garden borders.

PLANTING AND HARVESTING

Okra needs full sun. it will grow in ordinary garden soil but does best in fertile loamy soil, particularly where a nitrogen-fixing crop, such as early peas, grew previously. In the south, plant the first crop in the early spring and a second crop in June in short season areas, start plants in doors 6 weeks before setting them out (3 to 4 weeks after the last frost date:. Sow two seeds per peat pot and clip off the weaker seedlings. When seedlings okra directly in the ground, wait until after the soil has warmed and the air temperature is at least 600f, use fresh seeds, and soak it over night or nick each seed coat with a file to encourage germination. Sow seeds ½ inch deep in light soil and 1 one inch deep in heavy soil, spacing is 3 inches apart in rows, 3 feet apart. Thin seedlings to 18 to 24 inches apart always leaving the strongest of the young plants.

About 50 to 60 days after planting edible pods will start to appear they are tough when mature, so harvest daily with a sharp knife when they are no more than finger sized and when stems are still tender and easy to cut. Pick frequently and the plants will keep producing until killed by frost. Be sure to remove and compost any mature pods you might have missed earlier.

Many people find their skins are sensitive to the pods prickly spines, so wear gloves and long sleeves when harvesting or plant a spineless variety such as “Clemson Spineless”.

GROWING GUIDELINES AND PROBLEMS

When okra is four (4) inch tall, much to keep out weeds and conserve moisture, water during dry spells. Every 3 to 4 weeks side dress with compost or feed with compost tea.

Okra seldom succumbs to pest or diseases. Hand pick any stinbugs that appear, these light green, shield-shaped bugs cause miss happen pods. To control corn ear worms, cabbage loopers, aphids, or flea beetles, go to the top ten garden insects pests fusarium, wilt, a soil borne disease is sometimes a problem in hot region. If the disease causes leaves to yellow and wilt, pull and destroy affected plants. Crop rotation is the best preventive measure.

PRODUCTION REQUIREMENT

Okra is grown throughout North Carolina in home gardens and for commercial markets. It is a warm season crop that belongs to the cotton (mallow) family and should not be planted until the soil has thoroughly warmed in the spring. Okra is referred to as ‘cumbo’ in some areas.

Well drained sandy loams high in organic matter are the most desirable. It is difficult to get good stands on heavy clays. Poorly drained soils may result in drowning of the plants. Okra is susceptible to several soil borne disease pests (nematodes, southern stem blight and wilts) thus crop rotation should be so planned to avoid these where possible.

Clemson Spineless: Is a uniform spineless variety with medium dark green, angular pods. It requires 55 to 58 days from seeding to maturity.

Lee: Is a spineless variety with deep bright green, very straight angular pods. The plant is a semi-dwarf type.

Emerald: is a spineless variety with dark green, smooth, round pods. It requires 58 to 60 days from seeding to maturity.

Annie Oakley: Is a hybrid, spineless variety with bright green, angular pods. It requires 53 to 55 days from seeding to maturity.

Prelude (PVP) is a new open pollinated, spineless variety with very dark glossy green fluted pods. It can be harvested when pods are ½ to ¾ inches longer and still remain tender. It requires 50 to 55 days from seed and generally yields better than Clemson spineless.

Before planting, have the soil tested and follow recommendations. If no soiltest was made a great recommendation would be to apply 25 to 30 ib nitrogen. 50 to 70 IB of P205 and 50 to 70 Ib K20 per acre and make two side dressing of 20 pounds nitrogen each, beginning when plants are 6 to 8 inches tall and again 2 to 3 weeks later. Additional side dressing may be needed if heavy rains occur. Do not over use nitrogen, since it can cause excessive vigor and poor yield.

SPACING AND SEEDLING

Space rows 36 to 42 inch as part with 12 to 15 inch as between plants. Seed should be chemically treated to reduce “damping-off” (seedling rot) and planted about one inch deep. To establish good stands plant 3 to 4 seeds per ft and thin. 6 to 7 Ib of seed are required to plant one acre, soaking seeds over night will hasten germination.

CULTIVATION AND WEED CONTROL

Okra is harvested over a long period of time and full season weed control is important. Where mechanical cultivation is necessary it should be shallow and only as often as necessary to control weeds.

Harvested okra deteriorates rapidly and normally it is stored only for a short periods. If the pods are in good condition, they can be stored 7 to 10 days at 45 to 500f and 90 to 95% humidity. Upon removal from storage the pods must be sold relatively quickly. At temperatures below 450f okra is subject to chilling injury which results in surface discoloration, pitting and decay.

SUN REQUIREMENT

Growing okra requires full sun, at least six (6) to eight (8) hours per day, and warm temperatures. Okra thrives when temperatures get above 750f, and continue to flourish with temperatures 900for higher. There are a few cultivars that grow well in cooler conditions, such as north and south, which can be successfully grown as far North as Maine. Okra seeds can be started in doors four to six weeks before the last frost date, or sown directly in the garden once the soil temperature reach between 700f and 750f. Transplanting okra seedlings in the garden can be successful, but you must be careful not to damage the long tap root.

PEST PROBLEMS

If you see an insect on or near your beloved okra plants, do not rush for the nearest insecticide. For one thing, many insects are beneficial or at least neutral, but even if you are looking at an enemy, one insect does not make an infestation. It is best to identify the intruder and the level of damage it is causing before managing insect pests in gardens or farmland.

Some common okra pests are;

  1. Spotted boil worm: The larvae of this moth attack the shoots of plant by boring into it. It also bores into the fruits which are rendered unfit for human consumption.
  2. Jassid: The adult and nymphs of this insect feed on the plants by sucking the sap. Leaves turn pale and curl upward. The cupping may be followed by drying leaves from the margins giving a characteristic symptoms known as hopper burn. Both boll-worm and jassid attack the crop from May to September,   
  3. Spider mite: The plants are considerably damaged and weaken and the adults and nymphs such the plant sap. In severe cases the leaves dry up and fall off.  
  1. Wilt: Th4 growth of the plant become stunted and the leaves growth, the stem turns dark, close to the soil surface and finally the entire plant.
  2. Yellow Vein Mosaic: During rainy season, it is a very serious disease. Due to clearing of veins, leaves look chlorotic. There is a yellow and mosaic pattern. Fruit production is adversely affected. Fruits becomes yellow and lose acceptability.  

HEALTH BENEFIT

The mucilage and fibre found in okra helps adjust blood sugar by regulating its absorption in the small intestine.

  1. The fibre of okra has many superior qualities in maintaining the health of the gastro intestinal tract.
  2. It helps reabsorb water and traps excess cholesterol, metabolic toxins and surplus bile in its mucilage and slips it out through the stool. Due to greater percentage of water in the bulk it thereby prevent constipation, gas and bloating in the abdomen.   
  3. It is also an excellent laxative treats irritable bowels, heals ulcers and sooths the gastro-intestinal track.
  4. It is a supreme vegetable for those feeling weak, exhausted and suffering from depression.
  5. It treats lung inflammation, sore throats and irritable bowel syndrome.
  6. Okra has been used successfully in experimental blood plasma replacement.
  7. Okra is good for atherosclerosis and the fruit is also good for constipation.
  8. For adding bounce to your hair. Boil horizontally sliced okra till the brew became maximally slimy. Cool it and add a few drops of lemon and use this as the last, rinse and see your hair spring back to youthfulness and jump.
  9. It protects you from pimples and maintains smooth and beautiful skin.
  10. Great for preventing diabetes and it is good for summer heat treatment.
  1. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
  1. Is okra fruit important vegetable in Ovia South West Local Government Area (LGA)?
  2. Do we have high yield of okra fruit in Ovia South West Local Government Area?
  3. Is the environment in Ovia South West conducive for okra plants?
  4. Components of yield of okra plants is it the same in the different markets in Ovia South West Local Government Area?   
    1. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Purpose of study is to carry out a market survey in two different markets in Ovia South West and compare the components of yield of okra fruit (length, number of seeds, weight and number of grooves) in the markets. The research is also to find out the view of the people of Ovia South West Local Government Area about the yield of okra plant and how to improve the yield.

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

To make the people of Ovia South West Local Government Area to know the economic importance of okra plants. To make the people of Ovia South West Local Government Area to improve on the yield of okra plant in their environment.

To draw the attention of the government to the need of motivating okra farmers in Ovia South West Local Government Area to improve lives of the people of Ovia South West Local Government Area and Edo State in general.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The component of yield of okra fruit is the same in Udoh markets and Okada markets. The component of yield of okra fruit is not the same in Udoh Market and Okada Market.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is limited to the component of yield of okra fruit in terms of fruit length, seeds, weight and numbers of grooves in Ovia South West Local Government Area of Edo State.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Okra: Is a popular vegetable fruit of considerable food value, it is frequently used in soup.

Fruit: A fruit is a fertilized and ripened ovary and the seed inside the fruit are developed from ovules.

Components: One of several parts that together make up a whole system.

Yield: The amount of crops that you get.

Survey: A set of question you ask a large number of people in order to find out about their opinion.


Useful Links: