Project Body:



Background of the Study

Home is a place where the child lives, it has great influence on his development. The environment such as the home, plays a vital role in a child’s mental and physical development.

Christopher (2003) sees a home as a place where a person lives, spends much of his/her time or feels generally comfortable with. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 6th Edition, defined background as the details of a person’s family educational experience, social class, etc. Okorodudu (2004), pointed out that the home is a primary instrument for the transmission of values of values to youth. It is in the home that the child first learns about the concept of right and wrong, love and hate. Here, he develops the knowledge of self, others and the society. Hence, it is advised that parents should closely study their children, interact with them and adopt necessary intervention strategies, etc. at the appropriate time.

Klinger (2002) said that the training of self-discipline begins in the home. Family heads ought to assist the children in developing characters for effective social interaction and effective academic performance. Parents should not leave their children to such uncontrollable independence that could lead to various anti-social behaviour. They need guidance and should not feel that they are above control. In fact, the home shares in the challenges and experiences of the lives of the children. Thus, parents and guardians should live up to their responsibilities in building positive moral behaviours in children.

Chiony (2004) state that it is within the home that the child learns to play appropriate roles and acquires abilities, attitudes and modes of response that enable him to participate in social life outside the home. Parents can provide emotional support, be good models, cooperate with the school and provide all the necessary educational needs to enhance their children’s performance at school.  

Home background goes a long way in influencing the academic performance of every child. Each child has a different background, which reflects in his/her behaviour and performance at school. Most of the child’s abilities depends to a large extent on his or her parental influence.

The economic status of the parents also tends to affect the academic performance of the child in school. This is because a child whose parents are unable to cater for his/her necessary educational needs such as provision of various text-books and other materials as well as employing the services of a private teacher, cannot do well like those children whose parents can provide their educational needs.

The educational qualification of the parents has a lot to do with students’ academic performance. The parent’s level of education can either hinder or foster the child’s progress in school. A parent who passed through the school system will be able to prepare the children effectively for their roles as students. For example, a mother who had attended school and considers that doing well at school is an important aspect of the child’s life, will be able to make the child be aware that being punctual, paying attention in class and in general, responding to teacher’s demands and expectations are important in improving his or her academic performance. It is therefore not surprising to discover that many studies for example Douglas (1964) have shown that the most important contributors to a child’s academic performance is in fact parental attitude towards school. Some uneducated parents have a non-challant attitude towards education in general. They are of the opinion that education has little to offer their children. They pay little or no attention to their children’s educational achievement at school, not necessarily because they are poor but rather because of carefree attitude towards the education of their children.

Marital status of parents is another aspect of parental background that cannot be over looked. The emotional and psychological stability of a child which enhance effective performance depends mostly on the marital position of the parents. A child who lives with a single parent may not have attention and care as he requires from two parents. One the other hand, a child from a home where both parents are living together have the advantage of having his welfare well catered for because there is a relationship between the parental background and the academic performance.

Barbara (2004) noted that parent’s occupation is an important factor in the home that affects a child’s academic performance in the various school subjects for example, a trader or a business man who spends most of his time away from home may not have enough time supervise the academic performance of their children.

Culturally, the behavioural pattern among families from each other while in some homes there is liberal relationship between parents and children, in some others, because of the cultural taboos they observe, there seems to be an autocratic atmosphere in the home. This therefore influence student’s behaviour at school.

In conclusion, since the home is primary agent of socialisation and the initial education of the child begins in the home, the success or failure of any child depends on the encouragement and provision of favourable home environment by members of the family (Morrish, 1978).  

Statement of the Problem

Intrinsically, parent’s aspiration about their children is to see them prosper both in academics and other spheres of life. Unexpectedly, when the reverse becomes the case, parent look for a place to hang the cause of the problem. It is the characteristics of every parents to accuse the teacher for the children’s poor performance in school.

Obviously, when we access the performance of students in class generally, we may discover that in spite of the fact that the entire student were in the class when the lesson was taught. Some students still perform better than their counterparts. Having this in mind, this study tends to find out if students home background factors that is, educational qualification of parents, occupational qualification of parents, occupation of parents, family size and marital status of parents have influence on their academic performance in biology.

Research Questions

  1. Does the educational qualification of parents influence the academic performance of students in biology?
  2. Does the occupation of parents influence the academic performance of students in biology?
  3. Does the family size influence the academic performance of students in biology?
  4. Does the marital status of parents influence the academic performance of students in biology?

Research Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant relationship between the educational qualification in biology
  2. There is no significant relationship between the occupation of parents and students performance in biology  
  3. There is no significant relationship between family size and students performance in biology
  4. There is no significant relationship between marital status of parents and students performance in biology

Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to critically examine the effect of home background on the performance of students in biology in Ndokwa West Local Government Area of Delta State.

Specifically, the study is carried out to find out how students performance in biology can be influence by the following aspect of home background:

  1. The educational qualification of parents
  2. Occupation of parents
  3. Family size
  4. Marital status of parents

Significant of the Study

The finding of this study will help students, teachers, school, government, curriculum planners and future researchers benefit in the following ways:

  1. The outcome of this research may enhance student’s self-discipline right from home. It will also provide useful information to students from different home background to enable them adapt and cope in any situation they find themselves.
  2. It is expected that the results of this investigation will enable teachers to inculcate the primary objectives of the National Policy on Education on the students not minding their home background. It will also provide the classroom teachers with useful information on how to guide students from different home background in solving their specific classroom problems.
  3. The findings of the research may be useful to the school in ensuring that they have a good relationship with the students’ parents and set up associations that will bring the parents closer to the school e.g. the Parents Teachers Association (PTA).
  4. The findings of this study might provide useful information that will make the various levels of government see reasons to allocate fund to ministries of education and other educational agencies to enable the procure materials that will be distributed freely to students so that students from different home background can participate fully in the teaching-learning process.
  5. The finding of the research may help curriculum planners in the area of curriculum planning and development, so that the effect of home background on students’ performance at school can be re-activated.        
  6. The outcome of the research may serve as vital reference materials to future researchers who would want carry out similar research.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This research on the effect of home background on students’ performance in biology has been delimitated and scoped to randomly selected secondary schools in Ndokwa West Local Government Area of Delta State. This study will be limited to pubic secondary schools in the area. Based on this criterion, the following schools were randomly selected for the study.

  1. Ebologu grammar school, Utagba-Uno.
  2. Ndemili grammar school, Ndemili
  3. Olieogo mixed secondary school, Olieogo
  4. Isumpe mixed secondary school, Isumpe  

Definition of Terms

There are some terms which are commonly used but in this work and for the purpose of proper application, such terms needs proper definition.

These includes”

Home Background: These are circumstances surrounding ones family, be it social class, experience, education, etc.

Academic Achievement: This means students achievement in school.

Socio-Economic Status: An individual’s position in a given society ducted by parent’s occupation and level of educational attainment.

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