CHAPTER ON INTRODUCTION Background to the Study
Rats are one of the most widely used organisms in medical researches and student projects for their advantages in easy breeding and treatment as well as organs isolation, blood inspiration and special disease or syndrome induction Iannaccone,M. Philip and Jacob,J.Howard. (2009). Although of all the above advantages, the student still faced the challenges when using rats in their experiments, especially if there is interval collection of blood which may be important for anesthetizing the animal. Therefore, many universities and association protocols issued to deal with laboratory animals through anesthesia Bliss,S.(2017)., all of these protocols recommended to use of Isoflurane as inhaled anesthesia and Ketamine Xylazine for intraperitoneal (IP) injection anesthesia. IACUCGuidelines (2017).
A study conducted by Megan H Nowland .(2017). Constan AA, Wong BA, Everitt JI, Butterworth BE.( 2002 ) using chloroform or diethyl ether as inhaled anesthesia and some observed that 10 ppm chloroform inhalation in mice leads to liver toxicity. The major effect of human exposure to chloroform from acute inhalation is depression of the central nervous system. Chloroform exposure at very high levels (40,000 ppm) can cause death, with concentrations in the range of 1,500 to 30,000 ppm producing anesthesia, and lower concentrations (<1,500 ppm) resulting in dizziness, headache, tiredness, and other effects Animal Care and Use Committee(2006).. Effects noted in humans exposed to chloroform via anesthesia include changes in respiratory rate, cardiac effects, gastrointestinal effects such as nausea and vomiting, and effects on hepatic and kidney symptoms. Currently chloroform is not used as a surgical anesthesia . (ATSDR 1997)