1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
All organizations goals is channeled to maximizing productivity and increasing profit. There are several factors that can aid the achievement of a company’s goals. Employees can as well increase the productivity of an organization or virtually reduce it. One of the major factors that can aid the productivity of employees is Motivation. The definition of motivation starts with the root word, ‘motive’. According to Webster’s Dictionary, motive is something that causes a person to act; therefore, motivation can be said to be the action of providing a motive that makes someone to act. But relatively, it depends on the discretion of a person to decide if they will be motivated or not. Motivated and unmotivated are not opposite words, but a determining factors that could cause someone to be unmotivated, such as life events and attitudes towards a specific job. A person can become motivated in order to achieve their own personal goals as well as the organizational goals by will. The more an employee is motivated, the more likely they are be committed and identify themselves with an organization. This will satisfy some of the unmet needs, and keep them connected to the organization. The manager might be willing to give the employee incentives to achieve their own goals and organizational goals. There are two main ways to motivate employees: financial motivation and non-financial motivation. From previous research, it is reported that most people prefer non-financial rewards or recognition than money. Financial or non-financial rewards can be achieved as a group or independently. Group rewards can be positive in that, the employees have a common bond together, the teams are likely more productive, and communication between employees and upper management increases due to the team atmosphere. There are also some disadvantages which include: high performers are discouraged by working with low performers, there is a higher likelihood of conflict, and there can be more pressure on people when others are not completing their work. Either individual or group rewards, the following are some examples of financial and non-financial rewards. The motivation of employees depends on the strength of their motives. Motives are need, wants, desire, or impulses within the individual and these determine human behaviour. Therefore, motivation is the process of arousing behaviour, sustaining behaviour progress, and channeling behaviour into a specific curse of action. Thus, motives (needs, desire) induce employees to act. Motivation therefore is the inner state that energies people, channels and sustains human behaviour. Since it has been established that all behavior except involving responses are goals directed, manager can apply motivational theories of management in their attempt to direct the job behaviour of employees towards the goal of their establishment. Every organization and business wants to be successful and have desire to get consent progress. The current era is highly competitive and organizations regardless of size, technology and market focus are facing employee retention challenges. To overcome these restraints a strong and positive relationship and bonding should be created and maintained between employees and their organizations human resource or employees of any organization are the most central parts so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards task fulfillments. For achieving prosperity, organizations design different strategies to compete with the competitors and for increasing the performance of the organizations. A very few organization believe that the human personnel and employees of any organization have its main assets to which can lead them to success or if not focused well to decline. Unless and until, the employees of any organization are satisfied with it, are motivated for the tasks fulfillment and goals achievements and encouraged, none of the organization can progress or achieve success. Employee motivation is one of the policies of managers to increase effectual job management amongst employees in organization (shadier et al. 2009). A motivated employee is responsive of the definite goals and objectives he/she must achieve, therefore in that direction. Rutherford (1990) reported that motivation formulates an organization more successful because provoked employee are constantly looking for improved practices to do a work, so it is essential for organizations to persuade motivation of their employees (Kalimullah et al 2010) Getting employee to do their best work even in strenuous circumstances is one of the employees most stable and greasy challenge and this can be made possible through motivating them.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
In the modern competitive world, business organizations are facing ever-growing challenges regarding commitment, engagement, belief, recruitment and retention of their employees. Multiple studies in different countries and across industries show that employees who are passionate about their jobs and the organizations in which they work are in the minority. DDI (Development Dimensions International)’s own research reveals that only 19 percent of employees are highly engaged within their organization. The number of employers experiencing retention difficulties has climbed from 69% in last year’s survey to 78% in this year’s survey. Private sector businesses claim to be struggling more to hold on to employees than any of the other sectors (83%). Not only is that, also in the field of recruitment, a high proportion of these organizations still experiencing difficulties (84%). different Institutions faces the challenges of employee retention, high cost of recruitment, training, rising competition, increased rules & regulation by the government and high rate of technological growth. Also, from the perspective of employee, they feel de-motivated and overworked.
1.3 RESEACH QUESTIONS
1. What are the influences and outcomes of motivation on employee performance?
2. What are the factors and hindrances that are still holding back employee’s productivity
3. What is level of achievement with motivation and with the level of expectation?
4. What is the effectiveness of techniques adopted by organizations on employee productivity
5. What can be done to achieve optimum outcomes using motivational tools for the betterment of both the organization and employee?
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
6. To analyze the influences and outcomes of motivation on employee performance.
7. To identify the factors as well as hindrances are still holding back employee’s productivity
8. To compare the level of achievement with motivation with the level of expectation.
9. To study effectiveness of techniques adopted by organizations.
10. To suggest what more can be done to achieve optimum outcomes using motivational tools for the betterment of both the organization and employee.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The researcher shall restrict the scope of analysis to some organizations in Nigeria. The study shall focus more on the types of motivation. Also, to determine if motivation can actually improve productivity of an organization. Four organizations in Ado-Odo LGA, Ogun state will be sampled for these research
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The expected benefits of this research study to all stake holders and partners in national transformation and development are so enormous. First and foremost, the purpose of every scientific research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. These procedures have been developed and adopted in order to increase the likelihood that information gathered are relevant to the questions asked and are reliable and unbiased. Secondly, the Federal and indeed the States and Local Governments will through the findings of this study discover the immense importance of motivation if we are to achieve service oriented public service in Nigeria. Thirdly, this study will also present to the government and management of different organizations, the true picture of what their concern about workers motivation should be. Hence this study is intended to give an insight into the best ways of integrating the organizational objectives with that of the workers. This will make management to develop and adopt motivational techniques that would improve employee performance and productivity. Yet, organizations, managers, directors and policy formulators will benefit a lot if they are aware of those factors inhabiting their employees from greater performance and productivity. This study is also of both practical and theoretical significance. Theoretically, it is significant in the sense that it will add to a body of knowledge in this area both in Nigeria and other countries of the world. Practically, this study is significant in the sense that it will serve as an appraisal of the value of performance management and appraisal in a work place. Scholars, upcoming researchers and students in general stands to benefit from this study as it serves as intellectual information depository for research development on topical issues. Through this study, they will know what have already been said concerning the study area and the areas that call for further study. Above all, it will serve a guide and reference materials for scholars, researchers as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students conducting research in partial fulfillment for the award of degrees. The society at large and indeed the ordinary citizen or reader of this work will know that his or her individual input to the growth or national development process and the entire body of knowledge is indispensable if genuine transformation that can accelerate National development is to take place in Nigerian and elsewhere. The Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) i.e. voluntary agencies, religious bodies, philanthropic organizations and public spirited individuals will find this study of immense importance and value as it will serve as a guide for performance appraisal and productivity enhancement. In conclusion, this study will however recommend appropriate measures to be adopted so as to safe guide against the anti-performance appraisal circumstances. It is the purpose of this study to show that if workers are properly managed, motivated and their conditions of service made conducive; the public sector can improve their level of performance and productivity.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial incapacitation might reduce access to suitable materials and information. Also, correspondents might give incomplete information or not even respond at all to the questionnaires given out.
However, these constraints can be managed and worked upon to produce a good research result.
1.8 CLARIFICATION OF KEY CONCEPTS
Employee: a person employed for wages or salary, especially at non-executive level.
Motivation: a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way.