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PROJECT TOPIC: NON-PHOTO-CATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF METHYLENE BLUE IN SOLUTION USING COPPER II OXIDE CuO IN THE PRESENCE OF HUMIC ACID

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTIONWater pollution occurs when harmful substances often chemicals or microorganisms contaminate a water body degrading water quality and rendering it toxic to humans or the environment. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and ground water. Water pollution results when pollutants are introduced into the natural environment, for example releasing inadequately treated wastewater into natural water bodies can lead to degradation of aquatic ecosystems. In turn, this can lead to public health problems for people. Water pollution is the leading cause of death and disease, e,g. due to water-borne diseases(pink,daniel.h, 2006)Water is uniquely vulnerable to pollution. Known as the “Universal Solvent”, water is able to dissolve more substances than any other liquid on earth, this is why water is easily polluted. Toxic substances from farms, towns, and factories readily dissolve into and mix with it, causing water pollution.Sources of water pollution are either point sources and non-point sources. Point sources have one identifiable cause of pollution, such as a drain, wastewater treatment plant or stream. Non-point sources are more diffuse such as agricultural runoff(moss,brian, 2008). Pollution is the result of the cumulative effect over time. All plants and organisms living in or being exposed to polluted water bodies can be impacted. The effects can damage individual species and impact the natural biological communities they are part of.The causes of water pollution include a wide range of chemicals and pathogens as well as physical parameters. Contaminants may also include organic and in organic substances.Waste water from textile, paper and some other industrial processes are usually highly colored, toxic and carcinogenic. These colored compounds are not only aesthetically displeasing but also inhibiting sunlight penetration into the stream and affecting aquatic ecosystem. Dyes usually have complex aromatic molecular structures which make them more sable and difficult to biodegrade. Some dyes are reported to cause allergy, dermatis, skin irritation, cancer, and mutations in humans.


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