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PROJECT TOPIC: ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF COMPLIANCE TO THE STANDARD MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN BORE HOLE AND SEPTIC TANK IN ISIHOR, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE

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CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.0 Background of studyThe sources of ground-water pollution are many and varied because in addition to natural processes practically every type of facility or structure installed by man and each and every one of his activities may eventually contribute to ground-water quality problems. The quality of ground water is most commonly affected by waste disposal. Other major sources result from agricultural activities and ground-water development.In addition to these three major categories, there are other potential sources of pollution, such as mining, spills, leakage from underground pipes and tanks, and road salting. Regardless of the general believe that many people have of pollution being a modern phenomenon, it has occurred through out most of human history, certainly since mankind ceased to be nomadic and started to make settlements Water pollution occurred when humans began to farm the land and settle in villages and towns many thousands of years ago. For instance, the first clearing and ploughing of land for growing cereals will have released significant amounts of nitrogen from the soil into rivers, lakes and groundwater which is another cause of pollution (morris et all 2003)This Nigerian Code of Practice for well construction specifies the minimum requirements for drillers, supervising personnel and equipment to ensure cost effective water well construction and sustainable groundwater resources development in Nigeria. It also specifies the procedures governing the location, construction, maintenance and abandonment of water well, and the installation of pumps and pumping equipment; to conserve and protect the groundwater resources of the nation against contamination and to ensure safety of all water well construction activities. The code is applicable to all wells to be constructed, rehabilitated or abandoned, regardless of depth, for public and private water consumption in the Federal Republic of Nigeria.(NWRI 2010). The code specifies a minimum distance of separation between borehole and septic as twenty metres(20m), as against 30m as earlier specified by the world health challenges (who).


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