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The family is the child's initial social organization. As a result, the children receive early education and socialization from their parents and other prominent family members. A family is a collection of people who are linked together by marriage, blood, or adoption to form a single home and interact and communicate with each other in their separate social roles. A child's family image will undoubtedly reflect in his or her physical, emotional, or mental health. In this regard, the support provided by a family to a kid goes a great way toward deciding the sort of house from which the child was born. When the original parent is unavailable, the child's most significant contact in the socialization process is with his or her parent substitutes. The family provides the psychological, moral, and spiritual framework for the child's total growth. When and where there is harmony within the family, the child grows up in a happy home. In happy families, family members cohabit in a healthy and peaceful manner, which breeds healthy and happy children..

According to Alika and Edos (2012), a home is the place where the kid, his or her parents, or guardians live and from where the youngster travels to and from school. Very often, chances are that some homes are broken that is the members are not living/staying together either as a result of death, separation, divorce or the like. A broken home in this context, refers to a home that is characterized with single parent, as result of divorce, separation, death of one of the parents.According to Brim Hail and West (1997), a home is either intact/stable or broken, according to tradition. A stable home is one in which the mother and father live together, whereas a broken home is one in which at least one or neither of the parents lives with the children. This means therefore, that the home has a lot to give the child's life.

However, when a family's marriage is misunderstood and unstable, it leads to a fractured household. Research reveals that a broken home is a family system structured as a single-parent home. The arrangement is frequently the outcome of a divorce or separation of parents. According to Isa (2019), a broken household is one in which either the father or mother is no longer a member of the family. He goes on to list the causes of shattered families, which include: separation, divorce, death, or inter-family disagreement. Some of the most prevalent causes of fractured families include, but are not limited to, a lack of good communication, abuse, and negative or external influences. The consequences of a shattered household include a loss of interest in life, a detrimental impact on children's performance, and emotional instability


One of the difficulties affecting primary school children's academic performance is the issue of broken homes. In modern culture, children are occasionally exposed at a young age to different hazards such as starvation, infections, and the desire to survive due to the absence of one or both of their parents.   According to Datta (2014), Children who  live in broken households are related with emotional stress, which can hamper intellectual development, allowing such children to grow up without being properly schooled. Issa (2019) further opined that couples who are efficient and satisfied in their responsibilities are more likely to have their children perform well in school (Datta, 2014). However, the absence of one or both parents deprives young children of the consistent love, care, security, and comprehensive support to which they have become used, and tends to distinguish pupils in the eyes of their peers. More so,  such children, sadly, have little or no parental care, security, or academic assistance. These related issues do exert significant effect on children's academic performance, emotional well-being, social and moral development, and overall well-being. Against this backdrop,  it becomes imperative to conduct  a review on the   effect  of broken homes on pupils academic achievement.


The broad objective of this study is to present a review on the   effect  of broken homes on pupils academic achievement. Other specific objectives includes:

1.        To determine the reasons of broken homes among  pupils parents.

2.        To identify the extent to which a pupil’s learning interest is affected by a broken household.

3.        To determine if broken home has a major impact on pupil’s academic performance.

4.        To investigate how a student's academic progress in  primary school is influenced by their parents marital status.


1.        What are  the causes of broken homes among  pupils parents?

2.        What is the extent to which a pupil’s learning interest is affected by a broken household?

3.        Does  broken home has any  major impact on pupil’s academic performance?

4.        How does  parents marital status  affect the pupil’s  academic progress in primary  school?


The study will be of significance to both the pupils parent and the society at large will be able to benefit from this study. It will enable people to know the various evils that broken homes can cause on pupils academic performance which determine the type of citizens they will become in future. It also offers useful recommendations or suggestions on broken homes and how it can be prevented by parents children and the nation as a whole. It will enlighten parent  knowledge on how broken homes can be prevented.  The study will also serve as a reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.

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