1.1 Background to the Study
The primary purpose of teaching and learning process is to bring a significant change in behavior through active participation and critical thinking of the learner. This cannot take place without the availability of instructional materials (Afework and Asfaw, 2014). Oladejo et al. (2011) referred instructional materials as objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or physical objects which provide sound, visual or both to the sense organs during teaching. In this study Instructional materials involve students’ textbooks, teacher’s guides and reference books, maps and globes. These are key ingredients in learning and teaching thus enhance students’ academic achievement (Wiggins, 1998) cited in (Afework and Asfaw, 2014). Instructional materials are very important in the whole process of teaching and learning to any subject. They make learning more pleasant to the students because they offer a reality of experience, which stimulates self-activity and imagination on the part of the students. They also supply concrete basis for conceptual thinking and hence, reduce meaningless word responses from students (Nyamubi, 2003). Likewise Campbell (1999) agreed that Instructional materials enhance the teaching/learning process by exhibiting information necessary to acquire knowledge and skills.
Teaching and learning facilities are things that help teachers to do their work of enhancing learning in a good and acceptable manner and help pupils to acquire knowledge effectively (Lawnson & Gede, 2011:47). Teaching and learning facilities include classrooms, assembly halls, laboratories, workshops, libraries, chairs, tables, dormitories, toilets and kitchen (ibid).
Asiabaka (2008) defines teaching and learning facilities as the material resources provided for teachers and pupils to optimize their productivity in the teaching and learning process which consist of buildings, grounds, parking, playing fields, fixed and movable equipment’s, library, ICT facilities, laboratories, classrooms, conference rooms, offices and kitchens. According to Lackney & Picus (2015) teaching and learning facilities consists of physical structure, variety of building systems such as mechanical plumbing, electrical and power, telecommunications, security, fire suppression systems, furnishings, materials and supplies, equipment and information technology, as well as various aspects of the building grounds, namely, athletic fields, playgrounds, areas for outdoor learning, and vehicular access and parking.
Adequacy of teaching and learning facilities is essential in the whole process of teaching and learning because it influences effectiveness of the teacher in the classroom and on the general learning environment.
Mosha (2014) acknowledges that the quality of secondary school education cannot be separated from the context and circumstances that are found in schools. A number of secondary schools in Nigeria considered to have shortage of instructional materials (Sumra and Rajani, 2006) are understaffed, and some teachers are underqualified and de-motivated (Davidson, 2006; Komba and Nkumbi, 2008). Classrooms are also overcrowded, which affects teaching negatively (Wedgwood, 2007). Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) (2003) in support of this idea points out that, sufficient supplies of teaching materials and up to date student textbooks augment the teaching and learning process. Schools with sufficient infrastructure, laboratory space, electricity, water supply and sanitary facilities provide a comfortable and heal thy environment conducive to learning. Hakielimu (2008) and Laddunuri (2012) concur with ADEA (2003) that, most of secondary schools hav e an acute shortage of teaching and learning materials such as text books, classrooms as well as laboratory equipments and this is due to insufficient fund received from the Government aimed to carter for the same, hence limiting the improved academic achievement of Secondary Schools in Nigeria. Kimeu et al.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The quality of school buildings may be related to working condition for teachers and ability of teachers to utilize certain instructional approaches properly. Teachers need a conducive environment to be able to teach adequately and effectively. With inadequate teaching and learning facilities education tend to be of low quality due to the fact that teaching and learning won’t be conducted as required. Inadequacy of teaching and learning facilities is one among things which lower the quality of education in Nigeria. Teaching and learning facilities are important in teaching and learning in the school environment but most of secondary schools both private and are operating without adequate school facilities, and sometimes without any facilities, the problem of teaching and learning facilities seem to have a significant influence on the level of satisfaction among teachers, thus their performance, therefore the aim of this research is to assess the performance of teachers without adequate teaching and learning facilities.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess the performance of teachers without adequate teaching and learning facilities, specifically the study intends to;
1. Find out the effect of adequate teaching and learning facilities on the performance of teachers
2. Identify the factors that influence the teachers to work without adequate teaching and learning facilities.
3. To assess the performance of the teachers in the classroom with or without adequate teaching facilities
1.4 Research Question
1. Is there any effect of adequate teaching and learning facilities on the performance of teachers?
2. Are there factors that influence the teachers to work without adequate teaching and learning facilities?
3. What is the performance of the teachers in the classroom with or without adequate teaching facilities?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no effect of adequate teaching and learning facilities on the performance of teachers
Hi: there is effect of adequate teaching and learning facilities on the performance of teachers
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will be useful to educational administrators, new employed teachers and researchers. Educational administrators are brought to information about what faces teachers in secondary schools without adequate teaching and learning facilities. This would be used by administrators to establish properly directed educational policies to address the issues of teaching and learning facilities adequacy.
This would also be used to improve adequacy of teaching and learning facilities and create good environment for teachers to work comfortably. New employed teachers are exposed to strategies and methods which experienced teachers apply in teaching in community secondary schools experiencing inadequate teaching and learning facilities. Finally the findings of this research would be used by other researchers in this field as reference material and stimulate further research
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will examine the usefulness of adequate teaching facilities in secondary school, this research work will cover five different secondary schools in Ogun state, Abeokuta north Lga will be used as the research location.