The study examines the adequacy of resources in the teaching of social studies in primary schools. The design of this study was descriptive survey type. Data were collected from the teachers in six primary schools in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State. A total of hundred (100) teachers, male and female of different age, qualification and experience were used as sample. Questionnaire was made use of for data collection. The questionnaire was the close ended likert-type technique that exposes degree of agreement or disagreement with the supplied statement. Data were analysed using chi square. Finding revealed that, an evaluative study of the adequacy of resources in the teaching of social studies in some primary schools
Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made that:
– Teachers are encourage to commit themselves into the effective use of instructional materials in all their social studies lessons.
– Teacher should properly monitored and trained in the area of educational technology in order to expose them to the modern technological apparatus and how to manipulate their functions.
– The teacher been the main vessels through all the planned and unplanned activities can be achieved should realize the need for improvisation.
– There should be a forum where the social studies teachers will meet periodically to update their knowledge and access the effectiveness of their teaching using the methods of instructional and educational technology bas applicable to the content of social studies at the primary schools.
– Teacher should be more committed to teaching of social studies with the use of instructional materials given the importance of practical knowledge in it.
– Schools should appeal to non- governmental organizations, private sector, individuals and industries to assist in supplementing and substitution absolute educational materials and learning aids like projected and other software package.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Instructional materials are materials applied to enhance teaching and learning. It is also known as instructional media or teaching aids, or instructional resources. The main purpose of using them in the teaching/learning process is to aid learning. Effective learning involves the learners in activities and processes that would result in the acquisition of new ideas, skills, attitude or behaviour. Such activities and processes could be carried out more meaningfully with certain materials, hence the need for instructional resources. The use of such instructional resources is more relevant in social studies which is an activity – oriented subject.
According to Killen (2006), the issue of resources may not be easy to resolve, the important thing is that, teacher should not use lack of resources as an excuse for not teaching well. The implication is that alternatives are out their and teacher should refrain from being solely dependents on the local council for ready-made material, they should reach out for local materials and improvise whenever need arises.
According to Jotia (2006), the inadequacy of instructional materials and lack of educational excursions leaves teachers with no choice but to use instructional materials some of which do not suit the intellectual level of the students.
For instance, instead of visiting a dam, teacher usually show students two dimensional pictures which most students never conceptualize. Lack of use of appropriate materials for the intellectual level of the students denies them active participation in their learning.
According to Survey (1981), the social studies classroom should therefore focus on using instructional materials which will help mold students into developing a democratic character. Survey also reveals that teachers do not use instructional materials that cater for different learning abilities of learners.
Adeyemi (1992), teaching aids should be used to clarify teachers points and put the use of verbalization to a minimum while providing experience of things and process that can not be experience otherwise.
Agboola (1990) opine that there are not enough resources centres and most of the textbooks available are either unsuitable, outdated, inordinately ambitious and superficially insufficient or expensive.
Added to this problems of aids are lack of adequate facilities to library and good resource centres to use in assisting the teachers, most of the teachers of social studies are not well equipped to teach the discipline.
Of importance too is the extent to which teachers use available aids in teaching. Only few teachers of social studies make maximum use of many aids available in teaching the subject.
This observation is very revealing because the ineffective utilization of instructional resources is more or less a general problem which is peculiar to social studies teaching alone.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
The major goal of social studies is citizenship education which is about educating citizens to be able to confront problematic situation in life with confidence. In order words, social studies is supposed to teach students to become functional problem-solving citizens. Its primary purpose is to help young learners to develop the ability to important as social studies is, pupils continue to perform very poorly in social studies as evidenced by the annual PSLE results from 2004 – 2008. If students fail social studies at primary school level, the implication is that they will lack the foundation for citizenship Education as citizens of Nigeria. This will negatively impact on the students individual self-realization which would make them fail to utilize their unique talents and potential in contributing towards the construction of a sustainable democracy.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study was to find out how the use of instructional materials in social studies affects students performance. The study investigate how the teachers use of instructional materials impacts on the learners understanding and performance in social studies in Primary School Level of Education (PSLE).
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What instructional materials are used in teaching of social studies?
2. How do the instructional materials used in social studies affect students performance?
3. What are the teachers attitudes towards the use of instructional materials in teaching of social studies?
4. What method can be used in teaching social studies in primary schools?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this work could have been on state level of national level, but due to the time and financial constraints, it will narrowed on restricted to Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State.
To further reduced cost, few primary schools out of lot of them in the local government were selected for the study.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will serve as feedback to the education sector especially the departments of Teacher Training and Development and Curriculum and Education. The study will influence policy formulation pertaining to the training of social studies teachers in future. Teachers will also be aided on the efficient use of instructional materials to reach across diverse learners in the teaching-learning process.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
* SOCIAL STUDIES: It refers to one of the teaching subjects in the elementary school curriculum which deals with the relationship and interaction between people in a society.
* STATUS: It is here used as the position occupied by social studies among other school subject in the primary school.
* TEACHING: It is used to mean the act of imparting knowledge to the younger generation.
* RESOURCE PERSON: It is an individual that is very knowledgeable on a particular field which are invited as guest speaker to present information or fact or to pass their experience to the pupils.
* COMMUNITY RESOURCES: Community resources are place, people and features which are found in or around the town or village where a school exist.
* EVALUATIVE: It is the extent in which the specific instructional objectives are to achieved.
* INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL: Instructional material are material that use or applied to enhance teaching and learning.
* ADEQUATE: Adequate is by having requisite or resources to meet a task or sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.