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PROJECT TOPIC: AN EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS BELIEFS AND PRACTICES ON THE USE OF PARTICIPATORY TEACHING METHODS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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Delivery: Within 48 hours

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Participatory teaching methods are important in secondary education because secondary education occupies a pivotal role in the functioning of the economy and the education system itself (URT, 2010). Experience shows that, the majority of the people in both the private and public sectors are expected to be secondary education leavers. The whole primary education system relies on teachers who are a product of the secondary education system. Candidates of higher and tertiary education and training are products of the secondary education system. This is the essence of being pivotal, or the lynch pin. Important externalities of secondary education are increasingly being recognized in family planning, education of the off-springs, political participation and health. Good quality secondary education is a prerequisite for good quality human life, labor skills and economic productivity (URT, 2010).

According to Peterson (2007), teaching Methods are ways of managing the group of students in order to achieve designed educational goals. Further, teaching methods can be defined as the application of several teaching techniques and expanding teachers’ repertoire in order to maximize students’ understanding. This means that lecturers, teachers and instructors integrate different sets of teaching approaches that not only facilitate learning but also simplify the instructional content being delivered to the students. According to Beinomugisha,Jagero & Rwashema (2012) teaching methods can be categorized into two major categories namely; participatory and non-participatory ways of teaching. Participatory teaching strategy is that method by which students are to the fullest engaged in teaching activities within their preferably learning styles. Commenting on this strategy, Peterson, (2007), purported that it creates Learning whereby students are not passive members of teaching and learning process. This type of teaching strategy is comprised of various teaching styles. These include; group-discussion, academic controversy (debating), role-play, problem based learning, mind mapping, concept attainment, inductive learning. McKeachie (1999) revealed that the participatory teaching strategy may employ cooperative learning. In this mode, students are encouraged to work together in their small groups for the achievement of common goals. Teachers use small groups frequently to generate ideas for classroom discussion. In this strategy, students are in an established and sustained learning groups or teams. The strategy fosters individual accountability in a context of group interdependence in which students discover information and teach that material to their group and, perhaps, to the class as a whole.

Hammer (2014) revealed that the participatory teaching strategy may employ cooperative learning. In this mode, students are encouraged to work together in their small groups for the achievement of common goals. Teachers use small groups frequently to generate ideas for classroom discussion. In this strategy, students are in an established and sustained learning groups or teams. The strategy fosters individual accountability in a context of group interdependence in which students discover information and teach that material to their group and, perhaps, to the class as a whole. Woodson (2003) denoted that participatory teaching methods could take a pyramid system whereby the student works alone, then in pairs, and later in larger groups. He argued that this strategy, encourages interaction among students especially students who are reluctant to speak out in class, because they feel that, others in class have the same thoughts, although they may have reached the solution in different ways. This strategy increase students’ ability to manage difficult learning tasks.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

There is high rate of poor achievement of students in Secondary School sover the years. This could be as of the teachers use ineffective methods and strategies in teaching which among other factors have contributed to the student’s poor achievement in both junior and senior secondary school. This poor achievement in needs the for the government through the education ministry to do something concerning the teaching methods being used to teach the students, most teaching use the same teaching methods to teach when he or she needs to use different methods base on the topic and subjects i.e. most of the teachers are not trained therefore there is need to do something about it. The available literature on teaching methods suggests the need to employ new and innovative teaching strategy such as guided inquiry method, participatory methods. There is need to explore more into the best methods of teaching specific topics in arts and sciences subjects in other to enhance students’ achievement. Therefore, the problem of this research work is to examine the students and teachers beliefs and practices on the use of participatory methods in secondary schools.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to examine the students and teachers beliefs and practices on the use of participatory methods in secondary schools, specifically the study intends to:

1.     To investigate teachers’ and students’ views on the use of participatory teaching methods.

2.     To make comparison between participatory and traditional methods of teaching

3.      To assess challenges that teachers and students face when using participatory methods in classroom environment.

4.     Analyze the effect of participatory teaching methods on student s academic performance

1.4     Research Questions

1.     What is teachers’ and students’ views on the use of participatory teaching methods?

2.     Is there any difference between participatory and traditional methods of teaching?

3.      What is the challenges that teachers and students face when using participatory methods in classroom environment?

4.     Is there any significant effect of participatory teaching methods on student s academic performance?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Ho: there is no significant effect of participatory teaching methods on student s academic performance

Hi: there is no significant effect of participatory teaching methods on student s academic performance

1.6     Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will reveal the proper information for educational planners and administrators for further investigation and information about the Teachers’ and students’ perceptions on participatory teaching methods adopted in teaching process in secondary schools. The study was expected also to help on maintaining good conduct and make the required reforms in relation to both curricula coverage and students acquisition of life skills to improve the quality of education. The development partners, especially educational partners, may use the findings of the study to design interventions that will improve the quality of education in secondary schools. Policy makers will also be enriched with data information as they will be able to design appropriate policy based into Teachers’ and students’ perceptions on participatory approach adopted in teaching process secondary schools.

Finally this research will help the curriculum developers to adjust to the system so as to overcome the constraints that might arise and restrict the provision of quality education in secondary schools. Also it will adds the body of knowledge available about the Teachers’ and students’ perceptions on participatory teaching methods adopted in teaching process

1.7     Scope of the Study

1.8     Delimitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.

1.9     Definition of Terms

Participatory method: Participatory method is a form of reflective teaching approach which is sometimes turned as interactive teaching method or learner – centered approach. Under this method students have an ability to contribute their ideas during learning process and therefore the teacher is not a sole source of everything in academic endeavor therefore there must be interaction between teachers and students. It can also be defined Participatory teaching strategy is that method by which students are to the fullest engaged in teaching activities within their preferably learning styles (Beinomugisha,Jagero & Rwashema 2012).

Teaching: Teaching can be referred as the range of professional duties performed by teachers in and outside a classroom environment. Teaching can be defined as a process of imparting and transmitting knowledge, skills, values, and experiences from one who knows to one who does not. It is an art and science that involves specific strategies, which facilitates for every individual student to learn better. It is essentially aiming at delivering instructional content in a smooth and sequential manner Jambo (2012).

Delivery: Within 48 hours


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