1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Learning is enhanced when provided in a quality environment, such as when the classroom environment is conducive and has all necessary learning facilities; in other words, the more conducive the school environment is, the greater the opportunity to learn; in other words, a bare and hostile classroom and school environment provide little stimulation to learning as opined by Anyanwu and Izuagba (2009). Classroom libraries, school location, buildings, peers, teaching methods, teachers' attitude are all part of the school environment. The physical, psychological, and social environments, as well as the students' and teachers' reciprocal relationships, are all part of the environment hence t he learning environment should be designed with that goal in mind.
The teacher/learner is at the centre of the teaching and learning process; all of the teacher's efforts and attitude in and out of the classroom, as well as in the school environment, are directed at guaranteeing good overall growth. The notion of attitude refers to an individual's style of thinking, acting, and behaving. It has far-reaching consequences for the student, the instructor, and the learner's local social group, as well as the entire educational system. It's also a term that arose from an attempt to account for observer regularities in individual person behavior. Attitudes are developed in response to a variety of events. This is mimicry or imitation, which has a place in the teaching and learning process. In this way, the student draws from his teacher's attitude to build his own, which may have an impact on his learning results.
Bandura (1971) established that people learn new behaviors by observing someone else do it (the model, the instructor, the parent, the mentor, or a friend). It is demonstrated by the model, and the learner watches and attempts to copy it. Teachers are generally role models, with pupils quickly imitating their actions. What instructors enjoy or hate, what they value, and how they feel about their learning or studies may have a big impact on their pupils. Unfortunately, many instructors are unaware that how they educate, act, and engage with students might be more important than what they teach. According to Chidolue (1986), one of the key elements to explaining the difference in students' cognitive success is instructors' attitudes regarding Biology education. Teachers' attitudes about biology teaching have a big influence on students' attitudes toward biology learning. According to Ogunniyi (1972), the following teachers-related variables might improve students' favorable attitudes toward science.: The zeal of the teachers, The ingenuity and helpfulness of teachers, Teachers' in-depth understanding of the subject topic and their ability to make science engaging. As a result of the above, we may conclude that a teacher's position as a learning facilitator and contribution to students' accomplishment is considerable.
According to Bajah (1991), the sustainability of our science curriculum is determined by the classroom teacher, who is the one who puts all of our ideas into action. It may be claimed that the traits, experience, and behavior of instructors in the classroom impact the learning environment of their pupils, which in turn affects the pupil's outcome. Other factors that may have an impact on students' academic success in science, particularly biology, include instructor attendance, use of the library, class size, and school location. Farounti (1998) suggested that laboratory adequacy, a school environmental component, has been shown to affect students' performance in Biology, as students tend to grasp and recollect what they see more than what they hear as a result of using laboratories in science teaching and learning.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is impossible to overstate the importance of science, particularly biology, in a country's development. However, one must remember that the students, teachers, curriculum, and learning environment are the four pivots in each teaching-learning process. This study built and tested a seven-variable model in terms of teacher variables (attitude, classroom attendance, and professional/skills) and school environment variables (class size, school location, laboratory, and library adequacy/facilities) to provide a casual explanation of secondary school students' performance in Biology.Most schools have issues with insufficient libraries, classrooms, staffrooms, laboratories, teaching materials such as instructional aids, and technical workshops. These issues have caused significant hurdles to the teaching and learning process, as well as hampered Nigerian students' academic achievement. Biology students in secondary schools are thought to be better educated and have a lower chance of poor academic achievement if the learning atmosphere is suitable and instructional resources are available.
Several studied has been constructed and tested seven variables model for providing a casual explanation of secondary school students performance in Biology; in terms of teachers variables (Attitude, attendance in classroom and professional/ skills) and school environment related variables(class size, school location, laboratory and library adequacy/facilities). Papastasious (2001) recorded that those who have positive attitude towards science tend to perform better in the subject. The affective behaviours on the classroom is strongly related to achievement, and science attitudes are learned (George and Kaplan, 1998) the teachers play a significant role during the learning process and they can directly or indirectly influence the student’s attitudes toward science which in consequence can influence students’ achievement. According to Robinson (1990), data does not support the notion that classes will result in superior academic achievement for students on their own. Also, according to Afolabi (2002), there is no link between learning environment and student learning results. In light of these contradictory data, a research is needed to determine which of the selected variables will have a chance influence on a student's academic success in Biology. Thus upon this premise the researcher chooses to examine teachers attitude and school environmental factors' impact on student academic performance in Biology.