Eduproject.com.ng logo - RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS AND PROJECT TOPICS ON EDUCATION

PROJECT TOPIC: ASSESSMENT OF TEACHER’S SKILLS IN SUPPORTING VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY PACELI SCHOOLS)

Project Body:


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY        

The concern to provide special education existed as early as the 1940s. With the Universal declaration of human rights coming into force in 1948, the realisation of Universal special education was the main agenda of the world conferences. (Bloom and Cohen, 2002). Free access to special education is a right in the Universal declaration of human rights. The 1989 Convention on Children‟s Rights which most countries signed to, voted on this right as legally binding. Emphasis has been put on universal primary education since the 1990s, and this has spread to many countries. The two world conferences which occurred in 1990, Jomtien conference and World Summit for children, set ten years as the target for achieving global primary special education. When the set ten years elapsed in 2000, it was evident that the target was far from reach, progressing slowly (Delamonica et al.2004). The conference held next was the Dakar Special Education conference of 2000, which set new targets of achieving the Millennium development goal 2 on universal primary education by 2015 (Maas, 2012).

Children with physical disabilities make up one of the most socially neglected groups in society today (Helander, et al, 2011). They face different forms of exclusion which affect them in different ways due to factors such as the kind of disability they have, where they live and the culture or class to which they belong (UNICEF, 2013).

The concept of inclusive education seems to be a recent movement regarding education in developing countries. Looking back at African communities, Tanzania in particular, there have been some elements of inclusive education (Mmbaga, 2002). Historically, they had indigenous customary education which involved formal, informal and non–formal education. Such education involved positive practices of some elements of inclusiveness in education. People were engaging in social and economic activities. According to Kisanji (1998), the competent individuals were demonstrating various skills in different activities like making thread from cotton, making fish traps, storytelling and dances. Indeed, indigenous education was based on family belongingness, the values of the society, and collaboration. Kisanji (ibid) further argues that indigenous education would parallel with equalization of opportunities and inclusive education. The concept of inclusive education seems to be a recent movement regarding education in developing countries. Looking back at African communities, Tanzania in particular, there have been some elements of inclusive education (Mmbaga, 2002). Historically, they had indigenous customary education which involved formal, informal and non–formal education. Such education involved positive practices of some elements of inclusiveness in education. People were engaging in social and economic activities. According to Kisanji (1998), the competent individuals were demonstrating various skills in different activities like making thread from cotton, making fish traps, storytelling and dances. Indeed, indigenous education was based on family belongingness, the values of the society, and collaboration. Kisanji (ibid) further argues that indigenous education would parallel with equalization of opportunities and inclusive education.

Stainback (1994) says that the “goal of inclusion is not to erase differences, but to enable all students to belong within an educational community that validates and values their individuality.” It is also argued that it changes positively attitudes towards learners with disabilities. These declarations attempt to inform and awaken society on the plight of those with disabilities and to strengthen the provisions of education to people with disabilities. The provision of education to this group of people is appreciated by all but the long standing issue is how best this education should be provided. The provision of education for the non-disabled on the other hand has no issues relative to those with disabilities. Therefore, this study focuses on Assessment of teacher’s skills in supporting visually impaired children in primary schools (A case study Paceli schools).

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The goal of inclusive education is to provide the most appropriate education for all children in the most enabling environment. The end result of inclusive education, if successfully implemented, is to get all children together whether with or without disabilities in the same classroom (Stainback, 1994). To achieve such a goal, all stakeholders must work together; professionals, parents, administrators, and the political class at a level and in a way that the inclusive agenda can be planned and implemented successfully (Mmbaga, 2002). However, in spite of the schools admitting some learners with disabilities, they continue to experience a number of challenges. In some schools parents are even opposed to inclusive education.

There is need to improve and create a learning environment that would allow all learners regardless of their differences (physical, economic, social, and psychological) to learn together in inclusive schools. Following such initiatives, Tanzania is among the active nations that have ratified and included various world policies and conventions regarding inclusive education in its various education programmes at different levels. The aim is to improve education services and increase accessibility for learners with special needs, especially children with visual impairments, and create opportunities and access to quality primary education.

Despite such government initiatives, repetition of the classes and drop-out among children with visual impairments in primary schools are still high, even though there has been a good record of improved infrastructures and enrolment in primary schools (MoEVT, 2009; Tungaraza, 2010). That being the case little is known about the challenges faced by children with visual impairments in learning and participation in inclusive primary schools. This has been due to the fact that few research efforts have been focused in that particular area of study.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  

The general objective of this study is to examine the assessment of teacher’s skills in supporting visually impaired children in primary schools (A case study Paceli schools). The specific objectives of the study include the following:

1.     To establish the teacher preparedness in handling visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools.

2.     To find out the skills required by teachers in in supporting visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools.

3. To ascertain the factors affecting the efficiency of teacher’s skills in supporting visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools.

4.     To determine the challenges facing Paceli primary schools in in supporting visually impaired children.

5.     To investigate the prospect of teacher’s skills in supporting visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What is the teacher preparedness in handling visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools?

2.  What are the skills required by teachers in in supporting visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools?

3.  What are the factors affecting the efficiency of teacher’s skills in supporting visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools?

4.  What are the challenges facing Paceli primary schools in in supporting visually impaired children?

5.  What is the prospect of teacher’s skills in supporting visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools?

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H1 – There are factors affecting the efficiency of teacher’s skills in supporting visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools.

H0 – There are no factors affecting the efficiency of teacher’s skills in supporting visually impaired children in Paceli primary schools.


Useful Links: