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PROJECT TOPIC: CORPORAL PUNISHMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ITU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Corporal punishment is the use of physical force intended to cause pain, but not injury, for the correcting or controlling of a child’s behaviour (Straus and Donnelly, 2005: 3 – 7).

The concept is further elaborated by Gershoff (2002) that corporal punishment are; behaviours, which do not result in significant physical injury (example, spank and slap) are considered corporal punishment, whereas behaviours that risk injury (example, punching, kinking and burning) are considered physical abuse (Gershoff, 2002: 539 – 579). Frequency and severity of corporal punishment are inconsistently defined and measured and these vary from culture to culture, nation to nation and situation to situation (Ibid).   

The “cultural spill over” theory presented by Rohner (1991: 40 – 45) proposes that the more a society uses force for socially legitimate ends, the greater the tendency for those who are involved in illegitimate behaviours to use force to attain their own ends.  

Discipline in rising and teaching of pupils is necessary if they are to become social, productive and responsible adults. Punishment is only a method of disciplining and corporal punishment is only one aspect of punishment (Sanderson 2003).

Teachers, parents and guardians who use harsh and punitive practices to discipline their children, may succeed in making the child conform to their standards but resentment will be reflected by the child’s behaviour sooner or later.

1.2     Statement of Problem   

Corporal punishment, given by the teachers to pupils in schools is one of the threatening factors which affect pupils psychologically, socially and in long term their academic performance is affected as well. As a matter of concern; long term results of this kind of punishment can make pupils to react against.

Corporal punishment causes pupils mental activities to reduce, loss of self confidence and boldness, creates cramming qualities in pupils overturn to aggression, increase in reacting against to existing social system mal-showment of respect towards teachers and elders.

Teachers also believe that corporal punishment is the best ways to motivate pupils in order to behave well.

In few of the above, this paper examines corporal punishment on the academic performance of pupils in Primary Schools in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

1.3     Purpose of Study   

Generally, the study brought to focus, corporal punishment on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

Specifically, the study was designed to;

1.                 Examine corporal punishment and academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

2.                 Examine corporal punishment and its psychological impacts on pupils in primary schools in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

3.                 Examine corporal punishment and its cognitive development on pupils in primary schools in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

4.                 Examine corporal punishment and its moral internalization on pupils in primary schools in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

1.4     Significance of Study 

1.       The researcher envisaged that the result of the research work will highlight some of the implications of corporal punishment on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

2.       The study will help to know how corporal punishment can promote or maintain effective discipline of pupils in primary schools.

3.       It will help teachers play their role positively in the development of the country by producing quality education and quality pupils.

4.       It will help teachers play their role in providing guidance and counselling to pupils.

5.       The study will serve as a reference material to future researchers.   

1.5     Research Questions

The study seeks to answer the following questions:

1.                 Does corporal punishment promote academic performance of pupils?

2.                 Does corporal punishment have psychological impact on pupils?

3.                 Does corporal punishment promote cognitive development of pupils?

4.                 Does corporal punishment promote moral internalization of pupils?  

1.6     Research Hypotheses

1.                 There is no significant difference between corporal punishment and academic performance of pupils.

2.                 There is no significant difference between corporal punishment and pupils psychological state?

3.                 There is no significant difference between corporal punishment and pupils’ cognitive development.

4.                 There is no significant difference between corporal punishment and pupils’ moral internalization.  

1.7     Assumptions of Study    

This study is based on the following assumptions:

1.                 Corporal punishment increases behavioural problems in pupils’ cognitive development.

2.                 Corporal punishments make pupils to be rigid and violent in nature.

3.                 Corporal punishment create negative attitude toward learning.

4.                 Corporal punishment can make pupils to dropout from school.

5.                 Corporal punishment can create high level of fear in pupils.

6.                 Corporal punishments affect pupils’ performance in school.

7.                 Corporal punishment can promote academic discipline in school.

8.                 Corporal punishment causes high level of aggression and anxiety in pupils.   

1.8     Scope and Delimitation of Study

This study was restricted to corporal punishment on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

This study focuses on corporal punishment and academic performance of pupils, corporal punishment and its psychological impacts on pupils, corporal punishment and its cognitive development, corporal punishment and its moral internalization of pupils in primary schools in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

1.9     Limitation of Study

In carrying out this study, the researcher had experienced a lot of constraints on time management during the administration of the questionnaire, source of materials and information.

1.10   Operational Definition of Terms    

Corporal Punishment: Corporal punishment in this context is defined as a form of physical punishment that involves hilting canning, kicking and skipping of a child by a teacher, parents, or guardians.

Academic: Academic is defined as an activity that involves reading, writing and studying.

Pupils: Pupils is defined as a group of children who are being taught in primary.

Performance: Performance means commitment and effort to achieve a particular goal or task.         


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