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PROJECT TOPIC: EFFECT OF VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS IN SOCIAL STUDIES

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Educational instructional resources are the asset which facilitate the attainment of educational objectives and make the process of teaching and learning smooth and effective at the school level. These instructional resources include people, resources, finance, time and so on (Ndayelechi, 2013). Visual instructional resources are any-thing that helps the teacher to promote teaching and learning activities in social studies.They include printed resources, pictures, diagram, maps and charts, filmstrips and slides, pencils, pen, cartoons, model, and anythingotherthan can aid the teacher’s effectiveness (Fageyinbo, 2004). Visual instructional resources are educational input of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Appreciation of visual instructional resources would help the teacher and learner to achieve specific objectives. Okam, (2007) was of the opinion that educators must be prepared to display the function in terms of helping them to develop readiness for using these resources and encouraging appropriate learner participation in the use of these resources during classroom work.

Many teachers of Social Studies are not used to visual instructional resources in their teaching and learning. Jibrin, (2013) Associated this to the poor method of teaching, improper use of visual instructional resources, rote learning and lack of proper knowledge and skills of classroom instruction. Visual aids will not be of much use in the classroom unless teachers take care to use them to teach the learners, because they help learners to promote greater understanding of the experience. Students poor academic performance may persist if appropriate measures, such as, integrating of visual instructional resources in junior secondary schools are not made.

Social Studies as a school subject has over the years occupied an important position in the school curriculum. The Federal Ministry of Education in Nigeria categorized Social Studies as one of the core subjects in Junior Secondary School curriculum (National; Policy on Education, 2004). The subject has been recognized as effective tool for citizenship education in Nigeria. It is also a subject that equips the learners with critical skills to attempt to tackle problems of man. The Federal Ministry of Education’s (2007) Nine Year Basis Education Curriculum for Social Studies has overall objectives of enabling students to develop a sense of solidarity and sharing based on a sense of security in one’s own identity; inculcate the right type of values and develop the capability to recognize the many dimensions of being human in different cultural and social contexts. Social Studies education is very important in transforming the teachers and the students to acquire desirable attitude, wider experience, and unique methodology, to be useful member in the society.

One of the methods of teaching Social Studies is lecture technique where the teacher talks while students listen and take notes. Lecture is usually a formal talk prepared and organized by the teacher (Harry, 2004). Lecture techniques are used in presenting information and facts to students. The procedure is simple, the teacher does most of the talking and students listen. The students are passive listeners. It is agreed, however, that in order for lecturing to be effective, there must be communication between the teacher and students. The teacher should organize his/her lecture in such a way that students take an active role in the learning process. In lecture technique students are not given opportunity to participate and demonstrate what they have learnt.


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