Background of the Study Education is an age-old concept that has existed since man inhabited the universe. It is a process of transmitting what is worthwhile from generation to generation. The primary purpose of education is to produce effective members of the society whose three ‘Hs’ – head, heart, and hands have been well developed to enable them to live as effective and acceptable human beings. Effective education should be one that prepares members of the society to be able to fulfill their personal needs and to perform their civil obligations. (Azikiwe, 2009).
Education as an instrument of change seeks to change the environment through the thoughts of human beings and events in the environment. It is a process by which the individual is enabled to develop his knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes both for his own benefit and for the benefit of society. The process by which every society attempts to preserve and upgrade the accumulated knowledge, skills, and attitudes in its cultural setting and heritage in order to foster continuously the well-being of mankind and guarantee its survival against the unpredictable at times hostile and destructible elements and forces of man and nature. (Okafor, 2000). Education can be considered a major tool for the systematic and sustainable human and material development of nations. It is a priority sector in every well-meaning society. It can be considered as a process of acquiring knowledge, skills, attitudes, interests, abilities, competencies, and the cultural norms of society by transmitting it to the coming generations so as to enhance the perpetual development of the society. To actualize the above-mentioned educational benefits, a curriculum is developed for every school subject at various educational levels. Recognizing the role of teachers in the implementation of any educational policy, Ukeje in Ebiringa (2012) observed that education may unlock the door to modernization but it is the teacher who holds the key. It is the teacher who determines what happens in the classrooms especially in the social study classroom. Successful implementation of any educational programme can only be assured through teachers who have acquired necessary competencies in terms of knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes. Education is generally acknowledged as a vital tool for sustainable development. This position is clearly supported by the National Policy on Education (NPE) which perceives education as an “instrument per excellence for effecting national development in Nigeria. (the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Thus, the propriety of Education as a vital tool for development in predicated on its relevance to the needs, problems and aspirations of human society. Indeed, throughout history, societies both developed and underdeveloped, complex and noncomplex have used education as a relevant instrument for effecting desirable social, economic, political and technological changes. (Obanya, 2002).